Renin is released from the kidneys and it forms angiotensin in blood and tissues it stimulates the aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex. The posterior pituitary secreting more amount of ADH due to increased amount of renin and it results the reduced concentration of urine. Some of the factors which stimulates the secretion of renin in the kidneys are baroreceptors. It is sensitive, and it is used to detect blood pressure in the arteries. The juxtaglomerular apparatus are used to detect the low level of sodium chloride present in the kidney and several tissues secreting the inactive proenzyme renin. Renin secretion increases causes decreased blood flow in the kidneys stimulated by primary stimulus and it causes diarrhea, persistent vomiting, perspiration results sodium and water loss. Renal vasomotor activity is regulated by the system called renin-angiotensin-aldosterone. This system controls the tissue growth and maintaining the homeostasis of salt and water in the kidney. Renin itself is not affecting the blood pressure angiotensin I also affects. Liver produces the angiotensin; renin converts inactive form of angiotensin into active form of angiotensin I. With the help of renin this angiotensin I changes blood pressure.
Sodium reabsorption in the kidney:
In our body more amount of sodium is reabsorbed in the kidney parts, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distant convoluted tubule and collecting duct.
Proximal convoluted tubule:
65% of sodium reabsorption occurs in the proximal tubule and also the electrochemical driving force acts on the sodium reabsorption process. But it is initiated by cotransporter SGLT and the Na-H antiporter. The sodium moves along with the help of electrochemical gradient from the lumen and reaches to the tubular cell this is called passive transport. And together with water or some other chloride it diffuses passively.
Loop of Henle:
Sodium reabsorption also takes place in loop of Henle. Ns-K-2CI symporter and Na-H antiporter activates the reabsorption of sodium in the loop of Henle in thick ascending limb. This reabsorption takes apart from the chemical driving force.
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