Analysis of gaseous substances of arterial blood

Excessive bicarbonate ions in the blood are the main reason for metabolic alkalosis. Another important reason for this condition is increased tubular reabsorption due to kidney diseases. Some other reasons are:

excessive vomiting

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overuse of diuretics leads to electrolyte

the adrenal disease which influence the mineralocorticoids production


high-level accidental ingestion of bicarbonate, (baking soda)

overuse of laxatives

alcohol abuse

loss of stomach acids. Chloride-responsive alkalosis: Because of vomiting or any other dehydration method body loss of hydrogen ions. Chloride-resistant alkalosis: Too much bicarbonate ions retain in body fluid. Hypochloremic alkalosis: It takes place due to the continuous decrease of chloride in body fluids. It may be because of prolonged vomiting or sweating. Chloride is an essential electrolyte in digestive fluids that helps to maintain fluid balance. Hypokalemic alkalosis: It occurs due to reduced potassium levels. We got potassium through our food; less intake of potassium leads to potassium deficiency. The mineral potassium is very essential for the efficient functioning of the heart, kidney, muscles, digestive system, and nervous system. Kidney disease, excessive sweating, and diarrhea are just a few ways you can lose too much potassium. Early symptoms of alkalosis:



prolonged muscle spasms

muscle twitchin

hand tremors

Severe symptoms: Severe symptoms like dizziness, breathing suffocation, confusion, stupor start to appear in the absence of treatment at an early stage. It may lead to shock or coma. Diagnose alkalosis:

Urine analysis, urine pH test

Metabolic panel

Analysis of gaseous substances of arterial blood. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis: For chloride-responsive: In case of mild chloride-responsive alkalosis, intake of salt extra sodium chloride helps to maintain balance by making the blood more acidic. If severe symptoms appear, an intravenous solution (saline) will be given by the physician (sodium chloride). For chloride-resistant: In chloride-resistant alkalosis, the body loses potassium. So, high intakes of potassium in the form of pills, taking potassium chloride intravenously are the way to manage it. Prevention: Maintenance of good health, intake of a healthy balanced diet, drinking sufficient water to keep hydrated. Eating some nutrient foods like carrots, beans, spinach, bananas, and milk help to overcome mineral deficiencies. Some instructions to avoid dehydration drink 8 to 10 glasses of water/day. Electrolyte-replacement drinks after exercise help to regain electrolyte. Avoid or minimize the intake of carbonated drinks, sodas, limit coffee, tea. Lungs and kidneys help to compensate for metabolic alkalosis. Lung compensation: Our cells produce CO2 as a result of the oxidation process. This CO2 from cells transported to the lungs by plasma and red blood cells through our veins. By dissolving with the water of plasma CO2 forms carbonic acid with the help of carbonic anhydrase. This carbonic acid then breaks down into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions in which bicarbonate ions are alkaline. Because of this only blood acts as a buffering agent. The next way to compensate is by influencing the rate of breathing. This happens automatically; it is the first and fastest method and called respiratory compensation. Compensation by Kidney: The kidneys do compensate for alkalosis by enhancing the excretion of bicarbonate ions excretion in urine. This is a slower process than respiratory compensation, it is also an automatic process.

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