The scientist Whittaker had described some ways to measure the biodiversity of the ecosystem during 1972. Gradually alpha diversity gives the richness of the species in an ecosystem. Gamma diversity gives the total diversity present in all the different ecosystems within a particular region. The scientist Hunter (2002) defined gamma diversity as geographic scale species diversity. The beta diversity can also be referred to as true beta diversity. They give the idea about the diversity of the unique species present in a particular ecosystem and then comparing them from the other species of the different ecosystem. In simple words, beta diversity provides the ratio between the diversity of local species (alpha diversity) and regional species (gamma species). The beta diversity was first defined by R. H. Whittaker. The scientist Whittaker also defined the alpha diversity and the gamma diversity along with the beta diversity during 1972. Alpha diversity refers to the diversity in the number of species found in a particular ecosystem whereas gamma diversity gives the idea about the total number of biodiversity from the different ecosystems of a single landscape. According to the scientist Whittaker, the total species diversity of an area, that is, gamma diversity can be defined by two different terms as the diversity of total species of habitat, that is. Alpha diversity, and the differentiation in the unique species of habitat, that is beta species. The beta species can be further divided into four types as Whittaker beta diversity.
It was explained by the scientist Whittaker that the limits of the biodiversity in the landscape and the habitat gets diffused to an extent to give the subjective degree. When these inventory data sets are divided into the subunits, the beta diversity and the alpha diversity can be quantified. The inventory dataset has the total diversity of the species represented by the gamma diversity and the mean of the diversity of species per subunit is represented by the alpha diversity. Hence their ratio will give the beta diversity of species. This can be explained by the hypothetical species study of the alpha, beta, and gamma diversity including species of birds from the three different ecosystems. The inventory dataset quantified from the hypothetical species of the birds of the ecosystem as woodland habitat, hedgerow habitat, and from the open field habitat. The table shows that there are 14 types of bird species are found from the three different ecosystems. This represents a total of 14 species of diversity by gamma diversity. According to the table, the ecosystem woodland habitat has 10 species, the hedgerow habitat had 7 species in total and the open field habitat had 3 species of birds. This data represents the alpha diversity. Now beta diversity gives the data of the unique species as the woodland and Hedgerow ecosystem have seven unique species in total, the hedgerow and open field habitat have eight unique species in total and the open field and woodland habitat have 13 unique species in total. And if the alpha diversity and the gamma diversity becomes different, the beta diversity will not have any shared species.
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