Biological Diversity of the National Park Essay

The park supports extraordinary biodiversity with multiple ecosystems, extensive floral and faunal diversity. The park includes seven forest types, six types of grasslands, five wetlands, and three river system habitats. The park is one of the World Wildlife Fund’s 200 Global ecoregions and thus has gained world recognition for being a biodiversity hotspot. The forest sustains six hundred plant species which include gymnosperms, pteridophytes, dicotyledons, a monocot, and species of orchids. It is also famous for some of the rare tree fern (Cyathea spinosa), cycas (Cycaspectinata), screw pine (Pandanus furcatus). The park is rich in a diverse variety of fauna with 50 species of mammals, 526 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles and amphibians, and 120 fish species. The park has the second largest population of one-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), as it provides suitable habitat conditions to the species with its alluvial soil and wetlands. Another attractive highlight of the park is that it is home to the endangered Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Other Animal species:
Moreover, the park has over 350 species of birds making it the place with the highest concentration of birds in the world. Other important animal species found in the park include Asiatic elephant gaur (Bos guarus), Gangetic dolphin (Platanista gangetica), giant hornbill (Buceros bicornis), Bengal florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis), and Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus).

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Preserving the Integrity of the Park and the Major Threats to the Park:
Chitwan Park is one of the important biodiversity hotspots of the world that needs to be protected from various environmental and man-made threats to maintain the integrity of the park. It is legally protected under the government of Nepal. There are multiple conservation programs in place involving the government and the local communities. However, the Park continues to face some threats which include:

Soil erosion- The surrounding river system and the high rainfall rate in the park though important for ecological diversity also pose the threat of soil erosion. The three river systems bring about a huge amount of debris and monsoon season witness heavy rainfalls both of which make the small mountains prone to soil erosion.

Flooding- As mentioned above the extensive river systems and the heavy rainfalls make the region prone to floods which can further threaten the wildlife.

Invasion by alien species- The Park is susceptible to invasion by plant species Eupatorium species, Lantana camera, and Meconia chinensis which have rapid growth abilities and threaten the indigenous flora of the forest.

Wildlife poaching- As the park is home to many endangered and unique fauna, wildlife poaching is one of the biggest threats despite the many anti-poaching programs. One-horned rhinoceros continue to be in constant threat of being shot poisoned or electrocuted.

Industrial Pollution- The nearby towns have seen a rise in the number of industries that are a major cause of air and water pollution in the park. Moreover, the nearby towns discharge their sewage into the river systems adding to the adversary. Aquatic life has been severely affected due to this water pollution.

Developmental activities- the dam constructed near the park has affected the movement of aquatic fauna.

Unregulated tourism- The Park has gained global recognition and is one of the most visited destinations in Nepal. However, this unregulated tourism can disrupt the habitat of those species, affect the vegetation, and cause pollution.

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