Cognitive Processes involved in conditioning process:
Learning that takes place due to change in the cognitive process is called cognitive learning.
Thoughts, ideas, beliefs, understanding, and knowledge are basic blocks of our cognition, in the process of cognition the information is taken in and then organized to form meaningful information .though it was argued by Pavlov, Skinner and their followers that the process of conditioning do not require higher cognitive or thought processes.
Cognitive psychologists mention that thought processes or mental activity is a step in the conditioning process between response and stimulus, humans and animals have the capability to get aware of conditioning experiences that helps them to access future events and can predict expectations of what future happenings.
Cognitive Learning: Organisms adopt a particular behavior to get a particular result E.g. when a Dog hears sound of a food bell; dog expects the food to be followed after the food bell. This expectation of food followed by bell is a part of learned behavior.
Reinforcement: In the study of cognitive perspective reward as a tool acts very powerful in directing the behavior of an organism but if a reward is offered for the task which the individual already enjoys, it undermines the power of reward.
Cognitive Element: In the process of conditioning there is a big role of cognitive process of brain not only simple response â€“ stimulus association counts Thought processes also play a very vital role in reinforcement. A research on cognitive element of conditioning was conducted by Robert Rescorla and was found that Environment provides different signals to individuals but some stimulus are far better signals that other signals, Robert also studied the manipulation of signals in conditioning process.
Signal Relations: The relations between the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus influence whether a Conditioned stimulus can be a good signal or bad signal. A â€˜goodâ€™ signal can be defined as one that follows accurate prediction of the unconditioned stimulus Example: in an experiment of 2 groups of rats, one group had 100% pairing between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus and in other group of rats there was only 50% pairing between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus.
Response-Outcome Relations and Reinforcement:
The predictive utility of a Conditioned stimulus is an influential aspect regulating classical conditioning; the two classes of rats have had an equal number of Conditioned Stimulus-un conditioned stimulus pairings. Conditional stimulus is a stronger signal or indicator of shock for the 100 percent Conditioned Stimulus-unconditioned group than for the 50 percent CS-unconditioned stimulus group .This disparity must be attributed to the superior predictive capacity of the CS for the 100 percent group. The relationships between responses and reinforced results underlines the role of cognitive mechanisms in learning, reinforcement is not immediate when beneficial effects accompany a response. If the individual believes the response has provided the result the response is more likely to be improved. Animals are also interested in causal reasoning. They understand causal relationships among reactions and outcomes, Identify contingencies among environmental events. They regard Stimulators as signs that allow animals to mitigate their aversion and optimize enjoyment.
Learning through Insight: Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) was the first cognitivist. Kohler had assumed that organization of information was done in more complex way than the principles of association has allowed to spontaneously reorganize the information of insight learning type.
Phenomenon of Insight: Phenomenon of Insight can be defined as a spontaneous, sudden and total clarification after a lot many unsuccessful attempts. Kohler used chimpanzees to show the phenomenon of insight .Human being having clear insights is an asset of humankind.
Latent Learning and Cognitive maps:
Latent learning is characterized when data is not expressed in the action although it is processed in the brain somewhere. Starving rats were placed in a maze, and they had to navigate their way out in the first 10 days, rats created a cognitive map of the maze. By this experiment Tolman demonstrated the latent learning. The capacity of human beings to construct cognitive maps or mental representations of our world is of great importance. Cognitive processes allow humans to execute important new responses to achieve a target. Hence, humans are not confined to well-known and over-used types of responses. Talking about the Biological constraints on conditioning, Contemporary findings have suggested that there are limitations with the general concept of conditioning principles. When an organismâ€™s biological heritage imposes limitations, due to the interference of an animalâ€™s innate response tendencies and conditioning processes Instinctive Drift takes place.
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