Fecal-oral transmission can lead to certain types of disease. The infectious agents that lead to transmission by fecal-oral transmission are bacteria, helminths, protozoa, and viruses. The protozoans are also called single-celled parasites. The parasitic worms are referred to as helminths. Poliomyelitis is one such disease that gets transmitted through the fecal-oral route. Various fecal-oral transmitted diseases and infectious agents involve bacteria, viruses, and helminths. The bacterial disease involves cholera caused by Vibrio cholera, shigellosis caused by Shigella species, and typhoid fever to Salmonella typhi. The viral diseases include viral diarrheic disease caused by rotavirus, amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, and giardiasis by Giardia intestinalis. The helminths disease transmitted through the fecal-oral route involves ascariasis caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm disease by Necator americanus, and taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata.
Direct and indirect fecal-oral transmission
Fecal-oral transmission can be direct or indirect. Direct transmission through the fecal-oral route involves drinking and consuming contaminated water and eatables. It can also be spread through a handshake or touching the hands of the infected person. Due to the transfer of pathogens through the person-to-person fecal route, transmission can happen. Transmission through utensils use and touching infected surfaces leads to indirect transmission. A personâ€™s hand can get infected when he/she get in touch with fecal contaminated material. It can arise due to the usage of the toilet and improperly washing the hands. In this case, the hands have touched feces accidentally hence, they must be properly cleaned and washed. Open defecations must be prevented so that soil is away from contamination. Different infectious agents can also lead to contamination. The food and water get spoilt due to feces. If the infected food and water are taken through the mouth, the waterborne and foodborne diseases are caused. The fecal-oral transmission can be transmitted by flies, food, feces, fingers, fomites, and fluids. It is therefore termed as the six Fs category.
Diseases and prevention from the fecal-oral transmission
Fecal-oral transmission leads to the entry of pathogens. The pathogens further lead to severe illnesses and diseases. Diseases that follow a fecal-oral route involve different pathogens. The pathogens can be protozoans, viruses, bacteria, helminths, or any other disease. Diseases such as amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis are transmitted through fecal contaminated pathogens. Other viral diseases are hepatitis A, poliomyelitis, rotavirus and gastroenteritis, adenovirus gastroenteritis, and enteroviruses. Diseases like cholera, bacillary dysentery, are some examples of bacterial diseases. These diseases also follow the fecal-oral route for transmission. Pathogenic microorganisms transmitted in contaminated freshwater cause certain types of diseases. Other tropical diseases can also be transmitted through fecal and oral transmission. Tapeworms and soil-transmitted helminths are certain helminths diseases that lead to fecal-oral transmitted diseases. To prevent such severe and chronic illness, prevention needs to be implemented. One such step is to avoid open defecation. Sanitation is essential and must be kept on top priority. Food must not be kept open. Flies attack the open food. These flies might have moved upon human feces and thus spoiling our food. After dumping diapers or using toilets, washing hands with soap is essential. Poor conditions or non-cleared places must be properly sanitized and made fit for human use. Unfit water must be appropriately treated before drinking. The groundwater must not be brought in contact with feces or pit latrines.
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