Cognitive Processes and Cerebral Specialization

The biggest portion of the brain is called the cerebrum. It includes significant structures such as the cerebral cortex and certain other smaller structures such as the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and so on. It is located in the topmost region of the CNS. Cerebral is classified into two symmetric hemispheres namely left and right hemispheres. Specialization in the cerebrum is defined as the specific function exhibited by each hemisphere in the cerebrum. The right and left hemispheres can process mostly all the information but basically, their way of action is varied. The cerebral specialization is otherwise called hemispheric specialization. The differentiation in hemispheres helps the brain to deal with different ways of analyzing data. Cognition is nothing but a process that plays a significant role in attaining knowledge and understanding the same. Learning, attention, planning, perception and thought, and so on are included as cognitive processes. Cerebral hemispheres have specific responsibilities towards these cognitive processes.

Specialization of the Cerebral Region:
The area of the cortex in the cerebrum is divided equally into hemispheres in the right and left regions of the brain. The only exception in symmetric distribution is the area for language which is situated only on the left hemisphere. Also, the left portion of the hemisphere acts as the superior hemisphere in managing fine motor control skills. Because of this reason, most people are right-handed as the hemisphere on the left controls the right parts of the body. However, both hemispheres are specialized in different kinds of unique mental functions to perform them at their best. The hemisphere on the left exhibits their best in skills such as analytics, logic, verbal tasks, and sequential skills. On the other hand, the hemisphere on the right shows its best in non-language skills which specifically includes spatial perception and certain artistic talents, dance talents, or musical talents.

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Information Processing:

The hemisphere on the right and left is a different perspective on information processing. The hemisphere on the left observes the information in a small detailing way whereas the hemisphere on the right observes the information from the world in a larger picture. In simple words, one of them exhibited a smaller fragmented way and the other one exhibits a broader way.

Cognition :
Human brains are capable of various cognitive functions. Imagination, attention, language, perception are included in that cognition. The specialization in the cerebrum helps to differentiate cognitive function among the different hemispheres. Each cerebral hemisphere exhibits its cognitive function. Cognition is significant in every individual’s life as it helps in creating memories, decision making, and learning new concepts. Some of the cognition due to specialization in the cerebrum are listed as follows:

Language: Language cognition includes vocabulary, grammar, and literature knowledge. This is mostly specialized in the hemisphere present on the left side in many right-handers. Certain other significant areas namely Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area are responsible for speech production. This is mostly associated with the hemisphere on the left in most of the right-handers and about seventy percent in left-handed individuals. If a person is aware of various languages, the area for speech will vary for each language.

Sensory Information: Sensory information processing includes the processing of vision, hearing, and touching. In terms of vision, the hemisphere acts in the same way as it acts on the body. The visual cortex present on the right contributes mostly to the left portion of the visual field and it occurs vice versa for the right portion of the visual field. This processing of the opposite hemisphere to exhibit function on the other sides is alike in the auditory cortex for hearing and the somatosensory cortex for touching.

Value systems: The hemisphere on both sides have distinct value systems. The hemisphere on the right is to get rid of broader and figurative matters and the hemisphere on the left helps in reducing matters that are complex such as morals to regulation and measures.

Cognition impacts our everyday life in several ways. This is highly responsible for creating interactions among people, perceptions about the different audiences, recognizing the environment, and so on.


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