Plant leaves obtain water and nutrients through their roots with the help of vascular tissues and a cohesion tension mechanism. Water evaporating through the stomata produces a negative pressure or tension, according to the cohesion tension theory. This tension helps to pull the water column up the plant.
When there is a presence of water in the soil, the process of transportation of the water and nutrients starts. The water molecules is taken up by roots to move them through the stem and into the leaves. This cohesion-tension mechanism takes place due to the process of transpiration occurring in cell walls to fulfill the water demand of the leaves. Transpiration exerts tension or various levels of pressure and exerts the cohesion-adhesion tension mechanism.
Cohesion-Adhesion Tension Mechanism Features:
The water column in plants through cohesion-adhesion tension theory is maintained by the following bonding or features:
Cohesion: Bonding of hydrogen between water molecules
Adhesion: The bonding of hydrogen between water molecules with the molecules that constitute the cell walls.
Tension exerted on the water column also known as transpiration pull
Since hydrogen bonding in the water bonds the molecules with each other. Due to this, during the movement of water toward the xylem, they form a string of molecules. Evaporation at the surface of leaves causes transpiration â€“ which exerts force or tension and pulls the water molecules (that are stick together) up to the leaves.
Mechanism of Water Transportation through Cohesion-Adhesion Tension Theory:
The structure of xylem vessels is in a tubular form that extends from roots to the top part of the plants. The placing of cells is one above the other. The end walls of the cells are perforated forming a continuous tube. The end cell walls have pores in their walls and are supported by xylem tracheids. The connection of root hairs to the end of xylem tube is through endodermis, pericycle, and cortex. While another end of the tube is connected with the leavesâ€™ sub stomatal cavity through mesophyll cells.
The xylem capillaries have water-filled inside them and as a result xylem tube is filled with water. Hence, a continuous water column is formed due to the cohesion and adhesion properties of water. And due to this property, the water column can neither be broken nor pulled away from the walls of the xylem tube. Due to the presence of pits in the cell wall, even if air bubbles are formed, the individual water columns are unbroken. The water column is in continuity with each other in both lateral and vertical directions. Hence, it is clear that the water column in the xylem is continuous.
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