Flow of blood
Blood flow is important for the transportation of the nutrients to the body cells, and it also helps in the excretion of the waste products. The vital gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported with the help of the respiratory pigments (hemoglobin). The flow of the blood takes place from a region of higher blood pressure to a region of lower blood pressure. The flow of blood is measured by the blood pressure. The oxygenated blood flows from the heart, and it travels through the artery, and it flows through the arteriole and then into the capillaries. Capillaries are the finest arterioles that reach the organs. From capillaries, blood flows to the venules, and then into the vein, deoxygenated blood from veins is carried to the heart again. The speed of the blood flow mainly depends on the cross-sectional area of the blood vessels. The blood vessels having less cross-sectional area, then the blood flow of that region will become more. The blood pressure in the body also increases due to vasoconstriction.
The resistance arteries are the arterioles or the endpoint of arteries. As they have thick muscular walls and narrow lumen, therefore they lead to resistance to blood flow. The blood vessels from the physiological point of view can be categorized into buffer vessels, resistance vessels, metabolic vessels, and capacitance vessels. The arteries undergo some changes, in which the lumen of the arterioles is reduced and is increased with the media thickness. The constriction of such arterioles would lead to the development of higher blood pressure. This contributes to the structural alterations in the arterial wall. On the other side, structural narrowing of the lumen will turn to amplified vasoconstriction. Abnormalities of resistance arteries in hypertension: The increased constriction in the resistance arteries in higher blood pressure may lead to increased peripheral resistance. Increased responsiveness contributes to the norepinephrine and increased myogenic tone; this all has been observed in increased constriction. Some of the vasoconstriction agents, such as endothelin-1 and vasopressin, are used to lower down the pressure of the blood. Resistance arteries target disease in arteriosclerosis. The normal working of the arteries is lost in such diseases. Some of the chronic changes may take place due to vascular remodeling and reshaping. The flow of the blood is sensed through the endothelial cells that release some factors like such as nitric oxide that may cause relaxation and remodeling towards a large diameter.
Components of Arterial Blood Pressure
The arterial blood pressure in the large vessels includes different components. There are two different components of blood pressure; these are systolic and diastolic pressure. The diastolic pressure is 120/80. This is the ratio of normal adult blood pressure that is followed by the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. The value 120 mmHg represents the systolic pressure, and the lower value represents diastolic pressure that is 80 mm Hg. At the time of ventricular relaxation, the diastolic pressure occurs, which is a lower value of blood pressure.
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