Determination of the Prevalence and Risk Factors

Various factors such as age, physical features, and other parameters lead to a diagnosis that provides a proper screening technique. Various risk factors, such as passive surveillance system, active case ascertainment, and clinic-based approach helps in finding out the suitable technique and method. It is highly believed, and studies reveal that if the mother is consuming a high amount of alcoholic beverages, the infant must be affected with diseases, such as alcohol-related neurodegenerative disorders (ARND) and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Heavy drinking women can lead to abnormal infant growth. Alcohol-affected children face many consequences, and thus, it is advised to the women to avoid alcohol during pregnancy or if expecting a pregnancy. Alcohol consumption shows a high peak of alcohol content in the blood due to which prenatal injury can occur. Maternal age and the drinking pattern of pregnant women are the other risk factor. Alcohol-related birth defects arise from various risk factors that lead to several outcomes that need proper intervention.

Causes and Prevention of Alcohol-Related Defects

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Determination of the Prevalence and Risk Factors
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Certain factors can cause alcohol-related birth defects. In case the pregnant woman consumes alcohol, the infant gets adversely affected. The alcohol consumed gets transported to the infant through the blood that passes into the fetus through the umbilical cord. Alcohol can affect the baby, causing severe problems. All types of alcohol, used in any amount are harmful and affect the woman and the baby. Wine, beer, vodka, cocktails, and other adulterated drinks are detrimental to the body. Be it in a small or large amount; the hard drinks are damaging and unhealthy to the body. Alcohol-related defects can lead to various symptoms, such as decreased body weight, poor memory, poor coordination, and lack of reasoning and judgment skills. The birth defects include hyperactive behavior, inability to pay attention, different learning disabilities, and sleep problems. Problems in speech and language lead to the impairment of vision and hearing. The infants might also suffer abnormal facial features. To prevent the child and newborn from such serious illnesses, alcohol consumption must be avoided in the pregnancy. The woman must avoid drinking alcohol as the brain growth of the newborn gets stunted. If the woman stops and avoids drinking alcoholic beverages, the baby can stay protected. Due to a lack of knowledge and creating a good status, women drink alcohol that affects the baby from early gestation. A woman must avoid alcohol consumption from the very early sign of pregnancy. Selective prevention is often targeted to prevent the risk of a higher group of population.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Prenatal Alcohol Defects
Different alcohol-related birth defects in children can be diagnosed based on particular symptoms and depending upon the amount and type of alcohol consumed by the mother.

Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) possesses various intellectual disabilities. The problems include different learning and behavior patterns. The prenatal defect leads to impaired growth of the newborn. These children find malfunctioning in judgment, memory, and attention. In addition, the children are led to poor impulse control.

Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) is the condition included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association in 2013. The other diagnostic test includes Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD).

The newborns exhibit defects related to kidneys, heart, and bones. FAS affects the infant’s central nervous system. FAS people face signs and symptoms that involve ill effects in communication, hearing, memory, learning, hearing, and attention span. Alcohol-related birth defects cannot be cured completely, but a specific type of medication can treat them. Ailments can be fixed by looking at behavior therapy. Other alternative methods include parent training and educational treatment. Treatment involves follow-ups and close monitoring.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper