Difference between Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

Chlorophyll A is the major pigment that captures the sunlight for photosynthesis, whereas chlorophyll b is the accessory pigment that absorbs the sunlight and allows it to pass into chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll a absorbs the light range of 430nm to 66nm, but chlorophyll b absorbs the light range of 450nm to 650nm. Chlorophyll a can ingest around 1–2micron particles, but chlorophyll b ingests 0.1–0.2micron liquid droplets. The chlorophyll a can absorb violet-blue and orange-red lights from the spectrum; chlorophyll b absorbs only orange-red light from the spectrum. The blue-green color is reflected by chlorophyll a and yellow-green is reflected by chlorophyll b. The molecular weight of chlorophyll a is 839.51g/mol and that of chlorophyll b is 907.49g/mol. Chlorophyll a is found in all plants, cyanobacteria, and algae, but chlorophyll b is only found in plants and green algae.

Types and Function:
Chlorophyll is an important naturally happening pigment. It can be found in plants and some microorganisms; porphyrins play a vital role in the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis. There are different types of chlorophyll that are essential for life since they are responsible for autotrophic plants and microorganisms. Besides, photosynthesis, they are used in various other works of agriculture and food processing industry. The different types of chlorophyll are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll a is necessary for the photosynthetic organisms, whereas chlorophyll b is used for absorbing the blue light and therefore helps in the expansion of the light spectrum absorbed. A higher range of the energy from the sun is being converted into chemical energy in plants containing chlorophyll b as compared to that of the plants without the pigment. Chlorophyll c is found in various algae as well as in prokaryotes. Chlorophyll d is present in red algae and in some microorganisms. It is a minor pigment that helps in the absorption of the red spectrum of light. Chlorophyll f is the recent form of chlorophyll. It can be found in the wetland cyanobacteria. It has the potential to absorb high amounts of near-infrared light as compared to the other forms of chlorophyll.

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Role of Chlorophyll b:
Chlorophyll b is well known as a supplementary chlorophyll. This chlorophyll b gets attached to the additional proteins and is hence required for the proper arrangement of the protein complexes within the thylakoid membrane. When the protein levels in the major and minor protein complexes get disturbed due to the various types of chlorophyll b attachments, the presence of chlorophyll b affects the size and the composition of the protein complexes as a result of which the supramolecular arrangements of the thylakoid membranes within the grana are decided. The lateral mobility and the diffusion of the membrane molecules are mostly affected by the synthesis of chlorophyll b. It also seems to affect the linear electron transport along with the repair process of the grana. At the same time, in the angiosperms, the synthesis of chlorophyll b also affects the plants beyond the chloroplast. Initially, it has been seen to affect the stability of the pigment-protein complexes in protein arrangements. This thing plays a vital role in maintaining plant ontogenesis. The ontogenetic signaling is also affected by chlorophyll b. Moreover, some parts of the minor protein complexes located in the chloroplast rely upon the presence of chlorophyll b, which affects the ABA levels during the plant signaling process.

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