The first hurdle in the development of the hydrogen bomb was the attainment of very high temperature and pressure which must precede the occurrence of nuclear reaction. Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam, two scientists solved the problem of achieving a high temperature during the thermonuclear fusion reaction. They advocated that if an atom bomb is exploded at the beginning of the whole process, the heat and pressure created in this process would be enough to initiate the fusion reaction necessary for the explosion of the hydrogen bomb. However, many scientists opposed the idea of the construction of the hydrogen bomb due to its destructive nature. Ultimately, in 1950, the project on the hydrogen bomb got the approval of President Harry S. Truman.
Difference between hydrogen bomb and atomic bomb
A hydrogen bomb is based on nuclear fusion reaction while the atomic bomb is based on nuclear fission reaction. The hydrogen bomb is more powerful than an atomic bomb. The difference in each of these nuclear reactions is at the atomic level. The atomic bomb is based on the splitting of a large sized nucleus of an atom while the hydrogen bomb is based on the fusion of two small nuclei of different atoms.
Physics of fusion of hydrogen nuclei
Fusion is a type of reaction in which two smaller nuclei combine and form a big nucleus. Under the condition of high temperature and pressure, hydrogen and helium exist in the form of plasma. At the plasma stage, electrons get separated from the nuclei and positively charged ions and electrons are generated. Under the high-temperature condition, one proton fuses with another proton and makes a deuterium atom (H-2) and positron. Two deuterium atoms then fuse and form a helium nucleus (He-4). Two nuclei of helium fuse after that and make another nucleus of beryllium nucleus (Be-6) which further breaks and gives He-4 and two protons. At each step, energy is released.
Structure of the hydrogen bomb
The structure of the hydrogen bomb consists of two parts: primary and secondary. The primary part consists of beryllium fuel and the second part consists of fusion materials.
The fusion process begins with the detonation of the primary fission stage. Its temperature goes high and causes enormous glow due to X-radiation. These x rays flood the void between the secondary and primary assemblies which are placed in a radiation case. The secondary stage of the fusion starts with the ignition of a spark plug due to X-radiation coming from the primary stage.
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