The gross energy, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and net energy are all demarcated through their respective functions. The total heat energy obtained through the combustion of a substance is called gross energy or GE. It is measured using a bomb calorimeter and its unit of expression is kilocalories per kilogram of food ingested (kcal/kg) or megajoule/kg. The gross energy does not have anything to do with the other forms of energy like digestible energy or metabolizable energy but is always greater than their values. Coal, lignin, and mineral oils all have high gross energy but in the animal body nutritional feed is devoid of these and hence they are insignificant in energy partitioning. Animals get their energy supply mainly in the form of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Fats yield 2.25 times more gross energy than carbohydrates and proteins, due to their higher carbon and hydrogen content. Concentrates and roughages have comparable gross energy values. However, they differ in the net energy, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy content.
The digestible energy or DE is the portion of gross energy left after fecal excretion. It has been found through the bomb calorimeter readings that the undigested part of food excreted as the fecal matter also has got enough nutrient that can generate the heat of combustion. So quite some amount of the gross energy is lost through the fecal matter in animals. The digestible energy comprises both the metabolizable energy and the energy required for urinary processes and generating fermentation gases like methane. Methane production leads to a loss of about 8% of the total energy.
The metabolizable energy or ME is the amount of energy left from the gross energy after it is expended through fecal matter production, urinary process, and gas or methane production. Energy loss due to methane production is mainly present in ruminant animals and thus non-ruminants have a higher amount of metabolizable energy. An increase in body heat is the main form of loss of the metabolizable energy. The amount of metabolizable energy in the animal depends on several factors such as the feeding level of the animal, the nature of the processing of the food, composition of the food, and the animal species concerned.
The net energy or NE is the energy left from the metabolizable energy after the loss of energy due to the increment of heat. The net energy is usually utilized by the animal in the following ways, reproduction and growth of a fetus, milk production during lactation, production and deposition of fat, growth, and development, as well as the production of heat.
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