The food molecule consists of different molecules like carbohydrates, fats, and lipids. The different molecules are digested by different organelles of the digestive system. It is considered as the smartest organ system in the body, sometimes called a second brain because it has its nervous system called an enteric nervous system (ENS). It is a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that has a sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The ENS is responsible for gastrocolic reflexes and neuronal control on food to be digested by the digestive system.
The ENS communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. It can also influence the CNS. The food in the stomach is digested with the help of gastric juices and HCl (hydrochloric acid). The food from the stomach moves into the small intestine, then this partially digested food present in the small intestine called chyme. The chyme has an acidic environment when it moves from the stomach and it is neutralized by bicarbonate ions in the duodenum (first part of the small intestine), to protect the duodenum from acidity.
The Enteric Nervous System
The autonomous nervous system (ANS) can be categorized into three parts. These are sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric. The ENS has myenteric nerves (Auerbachâ€™s plexus) and submucosal nerves (Meissnerâ€™s plexus). The small intestine has four layers â€“ The mucosal layer, which absorbs nutrition from chyme, the submucosal layer, which has the blood capillaries which takes the absorbed nutrients into the liver. The third is the layer of smooth muscles that forms the muscularis externa from the circular muscular layer, and longitudinal muscular layer. The last one is the serosa, which is the outermost layer of the epithelial cells of the small intestine. The myenteric plexus is present between the longitudinal and circular muscular region of muscularis externa. Its function is to increase the velocity and intensity of the contraction of the gut. It controls the motility of the digestive tract. The submucosal plexus is found in the submucosal layer. The network of neurons present in the myenteric plexus has an ascending and descending network of neurons. The submucosal plexus controls the secretion and blood flow at the local level to determine absorption.
How ENS Works
The ENS works in two ways â€“ It functions autonomously by the local reflexes and it communicates with the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The ascending network of neurons secrets the acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, to the circular muscle layer and cause contraction there. They also release nitric oxide (NO) to the longitudinal muscle layer, casing their relaxation. The descending network of neurons releases nitric oxide into the circular muscle layer for its relaxation and acetylcholine into the longitudinal muscle layer for its contraction for the movement of bolus (digested food in the small intestine) forward.
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