The concept of blood circulation in a closed system and its transfusion in other animals was established by William Harvey in the year 1616. The first experiment of blood transfusion was made in a dog in England by physician Richard Lower, and then he also transfused the blood into a man.
A German physiologist Leonard Landois determined the concept of the bursting of red blood cells by the formation of clumping if these are taken from a species and inserted into other species. Thus, the process of agglutination and hemolyze was attributed for the first time. Leonard Landois confirmed his study by observing the appearance of black urine formation after the transfusion of blood into different species.
American Biologist Karl Landsteiner (1901) was the first to describe the blood group and its types in humans. The blood group system is constituted of some main substances, including blood, antigens, and antibodies. The scientist also recognized that antibodies are the main factors creating clumping. The reaction of antibodies with that of antigen tend to form the difference in the blood group making it in three forms of blood groups including A, B, and O. However, the fourth blood group, AB was identified by the next year. He determined that if the blood of the person with blood group B is transfused in a person with blood group A, it will cause agglutination creating cell burst, which will be dangerous to the recipient. Thus, for the blood transfusion process, both individuals must carry similar blood groups. In the year 1940, Landsteiner (along with Alexander Wiener) also discovered the Rh factor while testing the red blood cells in rabbit and guinea pig, when they used the immunization through the red blood cells of the rhesus monkey.
Some other blood groups were also identified later the discovery of the human blood group system. These blood groups were discovered after the discovery of antibodies by scientists Kell, Deigo, Lutheran, Duffy, and Kidd.
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