The action potential produced by the sensory receptor is transmitted to the spinal cord through these neurons. The cell body of this neuron is found on the root ganglion and it has long dendrites so that a connection between the sensory receptor to the spine can be generated. Interneuron (Integrating Center): Interneurons are found in the white matter and it receives the impulse that is transmitted by the sensory neuron, analyzes the signals at a faster rate (milliseconds), and generates the responses. This type of neuron is known as a relay neuron as it transmits the information at a faster rate. The response for the signal is generated and transmitted to the effector organ through the effector neuron. Effector Neuron: Effector neurons are in-charge of the transport of the impulse from the interneuron to the effector organ. These neurons have long axons as the impulse has to be transported from the spine to the target organ which is found at a farther distance. Effector Organ: Effector organ which acts according to the impulse that is generated in response to the stimuli. An effector organ generally is a muscle fiber and innervated by effector neurons since this neuron transmits the impulse for the response from the spine.
Types of Reflex
Depending on the count of neurons that carry out the reflex is classified as
Monosynaptic reflex: A single synapse take part in the reflex arc. Thus the reflex arc has a sensory neuron and an effector (motor) neuron. For example Patellar reflex, brachial reflex.
Polysynaptic reflex: More than one synapse is involved and the reflex arc includes the sensory neuron, effector neuron, and interneuron. For example, withdrawal reflex.
Visceral reflex Visceral reflex occurs in the internal visceral organs (heart, GI tract). These reflexes utilize the autonomic nerve fibers to stimulate neuronal actions.
Somatic reflex: Somatic reflexes are involuntary skeletal muscle motor actions in response to the stimulus. It is used to control skeletal muscle exercise or any movement. These reflexes protect the body from the stimuli affecting the muscle. Following are a few types of somatic reflex:
Stretch Reflex: During stretching of an extensor muscle, its spindle gets stimulated and the axon of these muscle receptor transmits the impulse to the spinal cord, and through the interneuron, the response is transmitted to the motor neuron. The motor neuron signals the effector organ, that is, muscle to undergo contraction. As the reflex is generated due to the stretching it is referred to as a stretch reflex.
Flexor (Withdrawal) Reflex: When the hand touches any hot things or fire, the sensory receptors found on the skin senses the stimuli and transmits the action potential to the spinal cord. The interneurons analyze the information and transfer the withdrawal response to the effector organ through the motor neurons. Now the hand is taken back and this withdrawal reflex occurs within a few milliseconds.
Crossed-Extensor Reflex: This reflex is the combination of withdrawal reflex and muscle contraction reflex. When their leg gets injured due to sharp items, due to withdrawal reflex, the injured leg is taken back (withdrawn) and at the same time, the extensor muscle in the unaffected leg gets contracted. This occurs to balance the body when a leg is suddenly undergone withdrawal reflex, preventing the person from falling.
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