Estrogen function on various biological parameters

Physical functions of estrogen
Estrogen mediates the development of secondary sexual characters in females. It facilitates a decelerating increase in height in females during the time of puberty, accelerates body fat burning metabolic activities, and decreases muscle bulk.

Estrogen also stimulates the inner lining growth of the uterus (endometrium) during menstruation, enhances uterine growth, increases vaginal lubrication, and vaginal wall thickening.

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Estrogen function on various biological parameters
Estrogen decreases resorption in bone and increases bone formation. Estrogen also supports the synthesis of proteins, an increase in collagen proteins, and hepatic production of binding proteins. It enhances the adhesiveness of platelet and decreases antithrombin III.

Estrogen increases triglycerides and raises High-density cholesterol (good cholesterol). They reduce low-density cholesterol (LDL) and promotes the deposition of fat. On electrolytes and fluids, estrogen causes water and salt retention. In the GIT (Gastrointestinal tract), estrogen decreases the motility of bowel and increases the cholesterol level in bile.

Effects of estrogen on other hormones: Estrogen enhances sex hormone and cortisol bind binding globulin. Estrogen also enhances pheomelanin and melanin and decreases eumelanin production.

Effects of estrogen on cancer: Estrogen facilitates growth and maintenance of breast cancers, which are hormone-sensitive.

Effects of estrogen on the development of the fetus: Estrogen facilitates physical differentiation of fetus to either females or males based on the genetic code. While androgen, for example, testosterone result in fetus masculinization, estrogen causes fetus feminization.

Effects of estrogen on mental health: Estrogen plays a critical role in the mental health of females. A sudden drop in the estrogen levels in the blood is correlated with significant mood changes and mood swings. After childbirth, or during the time of menopause, reduced levels of estrogen can result in depression.

Effects of estrogen on skin: Estrogen also plays a major role in human skin maintenance. It enhances collagen production, increases blood supply, and skin thickness.

Effects of estrogen on heart disease: Deficiency of estrogen increases the risk of heart disease. It also may result in the condition of atherosclerosis.

Effects of estrogen in men: Males also have certain levels of estrogen in their bodies. Estradiol has been observed to be responsible for inducing the process of spermatogenesis or maturation and the formation of sperms in men. It facilitates cholesterol metabolism, the strength of bone, and sexual maturation

Estrogen imbalance
Estrogen is majorly produced in the ovaries. Anything which will hamper ovaries in any manner will end up affecting the production of estrogen. Young females may experience reduced levels of estrogen due to eating disorders, excessive and vigorous exercise, a low functioning pituitary gland, genetic syndrome such as Turner syndrome, kidney disease, ovarian failure at a premature stage. In women who are above the age of 40 experience low estrogen levels, and this could be a sign of approaching menopause. This transition is known as perimenopause. During the time of perimenopause, ovaries will still secrete estrogen. However, the production will continue to reduce eventually as you reach menopause. When the body is no longer producing estrogen, this suggests that you have reached menopause.

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