Amnion, allantois, and chorion are the three most important layers surrounding these eggs.
Amnion is the innermost fetal membrane. It is the actual sac which contains the embryo. It contains amniotic fluid that acts as a cushion and protects the embryo from mechanical shock and provides hydration.
Allantois stores nitrogenous compounds generated by the embryo and facilitates respiration.
Chorion aids in the exchange of gases between the embryo and the external environment. It is surrounded by albumin that is rich in protein.
The chorion surrounds both embryo and egg yolk, which serves as the energy source for the developing embryo.
Outside the chorion, albumin or egg white is present, which is protein-rich and supplies water to the fetus.
The outermost layer of the egg is the shell, which aids in the exchange of gases and fluids. It is present in birds, reptiles, and monotremes. It protects the fetus and allows water retention and further acts as waterproof skin.
They protect the egg from predators, pathogens, damage, and drying.
The shells of amniotes vary from species to species. However, all of them serve the same function.
The shells of birds are made of calcium carbonate, which makes them hard, but they are fragile, while shells of reptiles are leathery and require a moist environment.
In higher mammals, extra membrane layers are replaced by the placenta, and the shell is replaced by the uterus.
Extra-amniotic pregnancies are possible when the amniotic membrane is ruptured.
Here the fetus develops within the extraembryonic coelom (chorionic cavity). This is an extremely rare condition.
Case studies exist in humans; babies formed were viable.
This condition also led to malformations of babies and even deaths.
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