Cleavage: Cleavage, a sequence of consecutive cell divisions, accomplishes the mission of the growth of the several cells that must be generated from the single-celled zygote. Blastomeres are cells manufactured during cleavage. Each chromosome in the nucleus divides into two daughter chromosomes so that the two daughter blastomeres maintain the diploid number of chromosomes. The divisions are mitotic and almost no growth occurs during successive divisions. The total volume of living matter does not change substantially as a result, the size of the cells at each division is decreased by almost half. Cell divisions appear to occur concurrently in all blastomeres at the beginning of the cleavage, and the number of cells at each division is doubled. The cells no longer divide at the same time, as cleavage progresses. Cleavage follows an ordered pattern in most species, with the first division being in the plane of the egg’s principal axis. The cleavage plane is considered vertical. Once again the second cleavage plane is vertical but at right angles to the first, resulting in four equal cells grouped around the egg’s main axis. The third cleavage plane is horizontal, or equatorial, at the right angle of both the first and second cleavage planes. Between vertical and horizontal cleavage planes, subsequent divisions can alternate, but later cleavage divisions become randomly oriented. This pattern is characteristic of many groups of species, but in animals such as annelids, mollusks, and nematodes, more complex cleavage patterns are found. The blastula formation signifies the end of the cleavage phase. The next stage of growth is not an increase in the number of cells, while cell divisions proceed at a slower rate, but a rearrangement of the cell masses required to conform to the gross characteristics of the future species. Before it can enter the adult organization, the embryo in the blastula stage must go through profound transformations. Usually, an adult multicellular animal has a concentric arrangement of the body’s tissues; this characteristic is common to all classes of animals above the level of sponges. Three embryonic cell layers are derived from adult tissues, called germinal layers: the ectoderm is the outer layer, the mesoderm is the middle layer, and the endoderm (entoderm) is the innermost layer. The endoderm lines the food canal and gives rise to digestive and breathing-related organs in chordates.
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