Human Activities and Anthropogenic Global

Human activities over the past two centuries have brought about major changes in the atmosphere. The main outcomes of human activity are global warming and loss of biodiversity. An increase in the temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere is known as global warming. Changes in the Earth’s atmospheric temperature result in climatic changes, melting of glaciers, growth defects in plants, and an increase of sea level and its temperature. The major human activities that cause global warming are the emission of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, methane, and water vapor), deforestation, and aerosol emission. These activities are the out comes of the industrial civilization, mining, population explosion, and burning of fossil fuels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its fifth assessment report concluded that global warming is due to 95% of human activity over the past 50 years. These human activities bring about an impact on the environment,which is difficult to be restored.

Major human activities that cause a drastic change in the atmosphere are industrial emission, deforestation, land-use changes, burning of fossil fuels, use of commercial and organic fertilizers, nitric acid production, biomass burning, and decomposition of waste in landfills. Example: The evolution of the refrigeration industry has produced a high amount of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Chlorofluorocarbons produce chlorine compounds that react with the stratospheric clouds to produce other stable chlorine compounds that rapidly deplete the stratospheric ozone, which has resulted in the formation of a massive ozone hole. A depleted ozone layer allows harmful UV rays to reach the Earth’s atmosphere. UV rays cause harmful effects such as skin cancers, cataracts, alter the food chain, and affect the growth of animals and plants. Deforestation of tropical forests accounts for 15% of the production of the greenhouse effect. It is also the cause of the loss of biodiversity. Deforestation reduces genetic diversity and species diversity in a particular location and destroys the ecosystem. Burning fossil fuels for various purposes results in the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. These gases block the escaping heat and trap it with in the atmosphere, thus increasing the Earth’s temperature.

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Greenhouse gases: Greenhouse gases trap the escaping heat within the atmosphere there by increasing the Earth’s temperature. Carbon dioxide (CO2CO2), methane (CH4CH4), nitrous oxide(NONO), and water vapor (H2OH2O) are the major anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The largest contributors to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are the burning of coal in power stations, industrial emissions, transportation of fossil fuels, and agricultural by-products that produce methane and nitrous oxide. Since the industrial evolution CO2CO2 emission has increased by 47%.

Water vapor: The most abundant and largest contributor of greenhouse gas is water vapor. Human activities increase the water vapor levels by small amount. However, the increase of water vapor on a global scale is controlled by the rise in Earth’s temperature, which influences the overall rates of evaporation and precipitation.

Land use: Population explosion and urbanization ledgo the increased use of land for building houses, industries, and agriculture. The requirement of increased land is achieved by clearing forests. Deforestation of land occurs either by cutting down the trees or burning the forest to clear trees. Between 1800 and 2007, about one-third of emissions of CO2CO2 are from changes in land use primarily due to deforestation.

Agriculture: Agricultural practices, raising livestock, and fuel-intensive farming has contributed to 18% of the global emission of greenhouse gases. This is primarily due to deforestation to accommodate the livestock and increase agricultural land. Example: Methane emissions (primarily due to enteric fermentation and manure) have increased greenhouse gas emissions by about 40%. Nitrous oxide emissions have increased by about 60% and they are chiefly due to the use of fertilizer.

Aerosols: Aerosols are small droplets suspended in the atmosphere. They are particles of black carbon. They have a cooling effect and have been attributed to various forms of climate change. Sources of anthropologic aerosols include the burning of forest and biomass, industrial soot emission (which contains ammonium, sulfates, and nitrates), and dust produced by desertification of land.

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