Hydroacids Naming Discussion Analysis

Hydroacids Definition
Hydroacids are the inorganic acids which are devoid of oxygen atom. They are also called as binary acids and contain hydrogen atom combined with non-metal element. Binary acids are actually two kinds and hydroacids are one of those kinds and the other type of acids are those which have oxygen atom in them such as sulphuric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid etc.


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Hydroacids are the compounds formed from hydrogen and non-metal elements such as halogens-fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and hydrogen with Sulphur forming hydrogen sulphide. These compounds have acidic properties due to their ability to donate hydrogen ion to the reactants they are added to. According to Arrhenius and Bronsted theories of acid and bases, those compound which can provide hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions are called as acids and owing to the acid-base theories the above compounds of non-metal and hydrogen acts as acids. Due to this ability to add the hydrogen atom to other compounds the hydracids can also be regarded as good reducing agents. Not all compounds containing non-metal atoms and hydrogen atoms acts as acids for example ammonia {\text{N}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{3}}}NH
is an amphoteric though there exist a non-metal atom nitrogen and hydrogen atoms but ammonia is a conjugate base of ammonium ion. {\text{NH}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{ + }}NH
. The ammonium ion is an acid and is formed by the reaction of ammonia with water where ammonia accepts a hydrogen ion from water and forms {\text{NH}}_{\text{4}}^{\text{ + }}NH


The reason these compounds are called as binary acids because they are formed from only two atoms of two elements, the hydrogen and the non-metal but there exceptions of {\text{HCN,}}{{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S}}HCN,H
S. Even though hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulphide contain three atoms in them, the cyano part is only one entity and the two hydrogens are to satisfy the valency of Sulphur and the overall charge of the compound. The naming of binary hydracids is done by the following considerations. As these compounds contain hydrogen atoms and non-metals, the prefix of the compound should be of the hydrogen atom by taking the prefix as hydro and the root word follows it that is the name of non-metal and the suffix should be –ic and then the acid. Examples of hydroacids and their naming –

1) {\text{HCl}}HCl The prefix is hydro + the root word of the non-metal chlorine is chlor + -ic + acid, this becomes hydrochloric acid. The pattern of naming goes same for all other hydracids containing halogens as non-metal atoms such as hydrofluoric acid, hydrobromic acid, hydroiodic acid. But often hydroiodic acid is called simply as hydrogen iodide of course this is when it is in pure compound from.

2) {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S}}H
S This compound is different in naming where the prefix is hydro as usual + the root word of the non-metal is to be considered as Sulphur but not sulph followed by the suffix –ic acid as usual. The name becomes hydrosulphuric acid. But it is commonly called as hydrogen sulphide in its pure form when not in aqueous solutions.

3) {\text{HCN}}HCN Same is the case with {\text{HCN}}HCN where it is commonly referred to as hydrogen cyanide unless in aqueous solutions.

Acidity of hydracids:

The acidic nature of hydracids is known from the fact that they contain hydrogen atom and they donate this hydrogen in aqueous solutions. The strengths of these compounds can be understood from the comparison of the relative acidic strength of hydrohalic acids and then followed by other compounds separately. The acidic strength of binary acids is dependent on the several factors such as bond strength, electron affinity, bond dissociation energy, enthalpy of formation {\rm{\Delta }}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{f}}}ΔH
of the hydrohalic acids etc. when the halides starting from fluorine to iodine along the group VIIA, as the electronegativity of these elements decrease along the group, so is the bond strengths of HX thus the acidic strength of these acids.

The order of acidic nature of hydrohalic acids follows the order {\text{HF > HCl > HBr > HI}}HF > HCl > HBr > HI this implies that the {\text{p}}{{\text{K}}_{\text{a}}}pK
values decrease in the same order. Also the bond energy (B.E) for Hydrogen fluoride is \rm{ + 136 kcal/mol}+136kcal/mol and {\rm{\Delta }}{{\rm{H}}_{\rm{f}}}ΔH
is {\rm{ – 65 kcal/mol}}−65kcal/mol which is way more higher than those of Hydrogen iodide. The {\text{p}}{{\text{K}}_{\text{a}}}pK
values of hydrohalic acids are in the range of 3 to -12. Acidity of other hydroacids such as {\text{HCN}}HCN and {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S}}H
S can be considered from their {\text{p}}{{\text{K}}_{\text{a}}}pK
values which is 9.2 and 7.02 respectively. These both are weak acids and partially ionizes in water to give ions. The acid strength of hydracids of VIA group increases down the group from {{\text{H}}_{\text{2}}}{\text{S}}H
Sto {\text{HTe}}HTe due to decrease in bond dissociation energy.

Uses of hydracids:
Hydracids when dissolved in water form acts as acids donating hydrogen ions. These compounds have several applications in chemical industry. Almost all the hydracids are used as laboratory reagents to perform chemical analysis etc. Due to their acidic properties they are formulated in household cleaning agents. Hydrazides are also used in manufacture of cosmetic, toiletry hygiene products etc. Apart from all the above uses they can be used as good reducing agents in some reactions.

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