The concept of membrane potential works as the fact that the cell inside the environment is always slightly more negative as compared to the cell outside. The value of membrane potential depends on the cell type, but usually ranges from -60mV to -90mV. The polarity of a cell is determined by the positive or negative charge dominating in the cell. There is a strong force of attraction that works between these charge differences that result in charge accumulation near the membrane of a cell and generating a membrane potential and the bulk of intracellular and extracellular matrix stay neutral. Two important factors are responsible for the generation of membrane potential from negative to positive. First is the difference in the ionic concentrations in the intracellular and extracellular matrix. Second is the plasma membrane permeability to different ions due to which there will be a continuous ion flow in and out resulting in membrane potential. The membrane potential of a cell is mainly due to abundant ions of a cell, that is, sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. The potassium ion concentration is higher inside a cell, whereas, sodium and chloride ions are more outside a cell. The Na+ K+ pump is involved in the active transport of ions across the cell membrane of neurons. This transportation of ions results in the generation of membrane potential. The polarized state of the membrane is the condition when there is a potential difference across the membrane. The condition when the membrane potential becomes more positive than the resting potential is called the depolarized state and when the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential, it is called the hyperpolarized state.
Action Potential and Hyperpolarization:
An action potential is a change in the voltage across the cellular membrane with some definite pattern and this happens due to the opening of voltage-gated sodium ion channels. Thus, an electrical impulse causes the opening of ion channels that leads to the generation of an action potential and it makes a positive intracellular environment of a cell due to the rushing of sodium ions in the cell. A threshold is always required for the generation of an action potential that is defined as the minimum stimulus strength needed for the cell to respond. The action potential changes the cell condition from a resting state to a depolarized state. Depolarization happens with an increase in voltage across the membrane from negative to a positive value and it reaches up to 40 mV. The peak of depolarization results in the closing of sodium ion channels and opening of potassium ion channels that cause lowering of electrochemical gradient due to movement of potassium ions out of the cell and the membrane condition changes from depolarized to repolarized state. Repolarization restores the membrane potential by bringing the values back to normal. This phenomenon leads initially to hyperpolarization where the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential and slowly the value increases and becomes resting potential. Thus, hyperpolarization is an indication for the membrane potential to reach the normal stage where the neuron can take the next stimulus and generate the next action potential.
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