Implications of Grazing Food Chain Paper

Food poisoning are a foodborne illness that is caused by consuming the contaminated food. The contamination of the food occurs by infectious organisms like bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. The toxin substances released by the infectious organisms on the food is eaten by the human that further causes the indigestion of the food in the stomach leading to food poisoning. The symptoms of food poisoning can be seen within a few hours of consumption of contaminated food. These symptoms could be vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain or cramps, fever, or diarrhea that needs instant consultation with a doctor. The fungi secret a chemical substance as mycotoxins that indigestion the food. The variety of fungi like Penicillin, Aspergilli, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus, and poisonous mushrooms like toadstools cause food poisoning in humans. The illnesses like indigestion of the food caused by the toxins of the fungi are called Mycotoxicosis. There are various mycotoxins discovered by mycologists that are very harmful to humans and some are even lethal for the human’s and animal’s body. Some of the important mycotoxins are Anatoxins, Coprine, Amatoxins and Phallotoxins, Trichothecenes, Gyromitrin, Ochratoxins, and Zearalenone.

Anatoxins are the most important mycotoxins secreted by the Aspergillus flavus and their other related strains. It was discovered that around 60% of strains of the Aspergillus flavus can produce the Anatoxins. The Discovery of this mycotoxin was first done in 1960 when around 10 lakh turkey poults have died within a couple of moths in England. Later it was found by the mycologists that the peanut meal they consumed, was densely contaminated with the strains of A. flavus. However, other fungi like A. oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and A. ochraceus are found to be producing the Anatoxins. Hence, the chemical substance discovered and isolated from the peanut meal has termed the aflatoxins and all the related toxins are collectively termed as the Anatoxins. Anatoxins are considered the most important mycotoxins as they have a high frequency to occur in nature and consist of potent carcinogenic nature.

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Amatoxins and Phallotoxins:
Amatoxins and Phallotoxins are the main mycotoxins secreted by the poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides which is also called a death cap. Such mushroom is deadly and causes nearly 95% of deaths in Europe’s mushroom consumers. Amatoxins and Phallotoxins are cyclopeptide chemicals. They cause hypoglycaemia, kidney failure, and liver dystrophy that eventually led to death in humans.

Coprine: Such mycotoxins are produced by edible mushrooms like Coprinus atramentous. They become toxic and cause gastrointestinal and physical discomfort when consumed with alcohol.


they are also called the monomethyl-hydrazine chemical which is deadly and produced by the basidiomata fruiting bodies of Helvella fungi. They are water-soluble hence, three times preboiled mushrooms can be safe to consume.


they were first isolated from the Aspergillus ochraceus, but can also be produced by the other strains of Penicillium and Aspergillus. The Penicillium verrucosum is the highest producer of Ochratoxins. Such mycotoxins are derivatives of isocoumarin which is linked with the L-phenylalanine amino acid and is found in the regions of Europe and North America.


they are produced by the species of fungi like Fusarium, Myrothecium, Cephalosporium, Stachybotrys, and Trichoderma. There are 30 Trichothecenes are discovered yet from which main are T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol are common. They usually cause hemorrhage and hyper-estrogenic syndrome.


they are produced by the fungi Fusarium, such as F. moniliforme, and F. graminearum. Such mycotoxins are found on the maize and have similar effects as Trichothecenes.

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