In the carbon cycle, the rotation of carbon in the biosphere and geosphere takes place. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants through photosynthesis, and then the carbon changes its molecular forms at different levels and finally reaches the atmosphere again by respiration in animals or by decomposition by fungi, algae, and other microbes. Carbon rotates in the Earth in two ways as follows: Short carbon cycle: This cycle is 1000 times faster in the biosphere, where plants take carbon dioxide and animals release carbon dioxide. Thus, this pool of carbon is called a short carbon cycle. Long carbon cycle: The small percentage of carbon enters the geological cycle and undergoes remineralization. This cycle is the main reservoir of long-term carbon storage and is called a long carbon cycle. This cycle results in the following:
Formation of coal and petroleum
Organic matter deep in the soil
Degradation of Lignin and Cellulose by Fungi:
The diagram is showing the decomposition of plant litter and the release of simpler organic matter by different microbes. Here DOM is dissolved organic matter and FPOM is fine particulate organic matter. Lignin is a polymer formed of phenylpropanoid units, and cellulose is made up of branching of d-glucose. Both polymers are major components of the plant cell wall. Around 8500 species of fungi are known to have been involved in the degradation mechanisms of organic matter. The decomposition of these compounds is initiated by the colonization of fungi and other microbes, and simple sugars, oligosaccharides, and low molecular weight compounds are utilized from them. Basidiomycetes are the secondary colonizers that act upon the lignocellulose complexes. Brown rot fungi are involved in the degradation of gymnosperms and they primarily decompose cellulose and hemicellulose in woods. White rot fungi also play an important role in the degradation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, which are degraded at different stages. They also produce extracellular enzymes that oxidize phenolic compounds, aldehydes, and alcohols by breaking the arylâ€“alkyl bond.
Symbiotic Fungi and Their Impacts Over the Global Carbon Cycle:
Fungi are involved in the major carbon flow along with their basic processes. The elemental cycling is coupled with metabolic activities of fungi such as biomass production, respiration, nutrient immobilization, and mineralization. Freshwater marshes are known as the most productive ecosystem on the Earth, where the maximum amount of biomass is produced. This biomass is associated with plant litter and it provides nutrition to the detritus-feeding consumers. It can be inferred from studies on fungi that they are good colonizers, transformers, and assimilators of plant litter carbon. Their sexual and asexual parts are developed by the usage of these macronutrients, and thus fungus uses the elemental nutrition for its growth and helps in recycling of not only carbon but also phosphorus and nitrogen. The fungi absorb carbon present in plants in the form of organic matter, and few species such as ectomycorrhizal fungi provide plants the nitrogen and phosphorous supplement. Thus, plants live in a symbiotic relationship with fungi and make the forest soil a carbon sink, from where different organisms can fulfill their carbon requirements, and thus the cycle continues.
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