Important human hormones and their functions

Hormones of Pituitary gland

Anterior Pituitary:

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone: Stimulates the adrenal gland.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): Stimulates the thyroid gland.

Growth hormone or somatotropin: Stimulates metabolism, growth, cell proliferation, and regeneration.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): Stimulates the luteal cells and Theca internal cells of the ovary in sexually mature females. It also stimulates the interstitial cells or Leydig’s cells of the testes in sexually mature males.

Prolactin: Stimulates the mammary gland.

Posterior pituitary:

Oxytocin: Designated as “love” or “cuddle” hormone; acts on reproductive, lactating cells; stimulates the brain, inducing reproductive and other behavioral patterns.

Vasopressin: The stored form of ADH; controls kidney functioning, water-salt homeostasis, sodium reabsorption

Hormones of Thyroid Gland

Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine: Functions in controlling metabolism, energy balance, weight balance, temperature balance, and growth and maintenance of skin structure and hair.

Calcitonin represses calcium release by bones.

Hormones of Parathyroid Gland

Parathyroid hormone: Regulates calcium and vitamin D

Hormones of Adrenal Gland

Adrenalin hormone: Functions as an emergency or stress hormone; causes various changes in metabolic activities. It also increases blood flow to the brain and heart.

Nor-Adrenalin: Functions in reverse reactions to adrenalin actions.

Cortisol: Also acts as the stress hormones

Aldosterone: Regulates blood pressure, heart, sodium, water, absorption, and potassium retention by kidneys

Hormones of Pineal Gland

Melatonin: Sleep cycle regulation

Hormones of Thymus

Thymosin: Helps in T-cell development for immunity

Hormones of Pancreas

Insulin: It is secreted by beta cells of Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Since the body receives glucose from food in the form of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, insulin lowers the levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids by inhibiting the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, fats to fatty acids, or protein to amino acids.

Glucagon: Secreted by Alpha cells of Islets of Langerhans in Pancreas, they function in contrast to insulin. They are released during fasting or when the blood glucose level is lower, thus raising glucose level by inducing the breakdown of glycogen.

Hormone of kidneys

Erythropoietin: Stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells

Angiotensin: Results in increased blood vessel constriction and elevates blood pressure

Hormones of Ovary

Progesterone: Prevents abortion, promotes mucus plug formation; produced throughout life.

Estrogen: Primary female sex hormone. Controls female reproduction, female secondary sexual character (like breast formation), menstrual cycle, and pregnancy.

Hormones of Testes

Testosterone: It is the male sex hormone and has reproductive functions, male characteristics, and increased muscle mass.

Progesterone: Promotes spermiogenesis and counteracts estrogen effect

Hormones of Placenta

Human Chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG): If the egg is implanted in the placenta, a hormone called Human Chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is released. HCG pass reaches blood and urine, and its detection indicates pregnancy. Hence, it is also called the pregnancy hormone.

Relaxin: Induces maternal ECM modification, and synthesis during the second trimester. Human placental lactogen: Stimulates the development of the mammary gland Activin and inhibin: Activin promotes FSH, while inhibin inhibits FSH. These are produced throughout pregnancy at a varying level. They balance HCG production levels.

Progesterone: Aids in the preparation of pregnancy, like the development of glands (mammary), preparation of endometrium to facilitate pregnancy, and implantation of the egg

Estrogen: Stimulates myometrium development; produced throughout life.

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