Lycophytes are seedless vascular plants that have well-developed vascular tissue. It belongs to the phylum Lycophyta and is placed in a subdivision called Lycopodiophytina. The living lycophytes exist as small and herbaceous plants, whereas the extinct lycophytes, representing a group of large trees, which were crucial in the formation of coal. It is categorized into three parts: club mosses, quillworts, and spike mosses.
Often called the ‘fern allies,’ lycophytes are recognized. This clade of vascular plants is almost fern-that does not have fruits but has special scale-like leaves known as microphylls.
It is an ancient plant with no seeds, wood, or flowers. Similar to ferns, lycophytes undergo reproduction through spores. The growth of lycophytes has occurred nearly 400 million years ago (mya) which is mostly in the Devonian period. The lycophytes include the seedling, the mosses of the club, and the spike moose along with other extinct groups including the trees on the scale. Lycophytes, including the tree-like species in the Carboniferous Period, were thought to be some of the dominant plant species but relatively small lycophytes. The scientific names used on behalf of this group of crops and the informal English names are unclear. “Lycopodiophyta,” the informal name “lycophyte,” etc. for instance. However, contrary to the higher plants or angiosperm, the lycophytes contain no seed or are plants without seeds. Like any plant without seeds, sperm water is also needed for lycophytes to swim to eggs.
Reproduction in Lycophytes is carried out with the help of spores. Like other vascular plants, the life cycle in this plant is an alternation of generations. The sporophyte generation is the dominant one and the gametophyte generation is independent of the sporophyte. Some lycophytes are considered to be homosporous while others are heterosporous. The phylum lycophyta or the Lycopodiophyta represents a line of an evolutionary pattern different from tracheophytes like gymnosperms, seed-producing plants, and ferns. The zosterophylls which are extinct land plants lacked true leaves and roots. It has an outgrowth from the surface of the stem known as enation. In lycophytes, there is a presence of leaf-like structure called microphylls that arise independently from the leaves of seed-producing plants.
In lycophytes, the life cycle involves the alternation of generations. The spores that are produced in sporangia can be spread through air and water for pollination. The formation of gametophyte occurs if the spores find appropriate environmental conditions. When compared to gametophyte which is smaller, the sporophyte form has a symbiotic relationship with the fungi. Club mosses are homosporous which produce one spore whereas quillworts and spike mosses are heterosporous that produces megaspores and microspores.
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