Main Characteristics of Animal Development Birth

Fertilization is the process where the fusion of the male gamete with the female gamete takes place. The fertilization between the male gamete, the sperm, and the female gamete, the egg results in genetic recombination and retains the diploid number of the chromosome. The egg after the process of fertilization grows in size by accumulating the yolk. The yolk contains mRNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomes for the production of protein and the development of an embryo. The embryo filled with RNA is called a germinal vesicle. After the entry of the sperm into the egg, the fusion of the haploid male and female nuclei takes place. This leads to the recombination of the genome and forms a diploid zygote. The zygote then undergoes repeated mitotic cell division to develop into an embryo. • Cleavage:

Cleavage of the zygote occurs after fertilization. The zygote undergoes rapid cell division without increasing its size. Each cell after division is called a blastomere. After the formation of 100 blastomeres, the embryo is called a blastula. It is hollow and has a fluid-filled cavity known as blastocoel. The outer layer of the blastocoel forms the first embryonic tissue called blastoderm. During the process of cleavage, several factors influence the determination of the body axis. For example, in invertebrates, cytoplasmic determinants such as proteins and mRNAs are asymmetrically distributed throughout the egg. During the cleavage, the region with a high amount of cytoplasmic determinant develops into the anterior portion of the embryo, and the region with a low amount of cytoplasmic determinant develops into the posterior portion of the embryo. The amount of yolk within an egg also influences the development of the body axis. As the yolk is heavy, it sinks. The region with a high amount of yolk is called the vegetal pole and it develops into the posterior portion of the embryo, whereas the region with a less amount of yolk is called the animal pole and it develops into the anterior portion of the embryo. Mammalian embryos do not have cytoplasmic determinants and a high amount of yolk, and therefore the development of the axis depends on the induction of the cells. Induction is the process by which the presence of some cells influences the development of other cells.

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The process that occurs after the formation of the blastula is called gastrulation. The blastula consists of cells around the hollow blastocoel, which rearrange themselves into the three germ layers forming gastrula. The gastrula consists of a primitive gut. The three germ layers are ectoderm (the outer layer of the gastrula), mesoderm (the middle layer), and endoderm (the inner layer of the gastrula). To form the three germ layers, the invagination of the blastoderm into the blastocoel takes place. Invagination forms a pore called the blastopore. The cells that migrate inside develop into endoderm. The cells of the outer layer develop into ectoderm, and the cells that move between endoderm and ectoderm develop into mesoderm. The blastopore reaches the other side of the embryo forming the archenteron.

The process that follows gastrulation is called organogenesis. Organogenesis is a process by which the three germ layers develop into organs. The ectoderm or outer layer develops into skin, pigment cells, and neural tissue. The mesoderm or middle layer develops into muscles, red blood cells, and reproductive organs. The endoderm or internal layer develops into the digestive tract, lungs, and thyroid cells.

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