Main General characteristics of Bryophytes

These plants do not contain xylem and phloem

The plant body has a dominant part called haploid gametophyte.

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The bryophytic plants are present in shaded and damp areas.

The thalloid gametophyte gets differentiated into different parts, namely, axis, leaves, and rhizoids.

The body of the plant is thallus is like prostrate or erect.

The archegonium in bryophytes is like a flask and generates one egg.

Bryophytes exhibit alternation of generation between independent gametophytes possessing sex organs, which generates egg and sperm and based on sporophyte which has spores.

The bryophytes do not contain the stem-like, leaf-like, and root-like structure.

The fusion of egg with antherozoids forms a zygote.

The zygote then develops to form a multicellular sporophyte.

The juvenile gametophyte is called protonema.

The sporophyte cells undergo the process of meiosis for forming the gamete (haploid) which generates gametophyte.

The capsule, seta, and foot are differentiated from the sporophyte.

Bryophyta is divided into three classes namely, Bryopsida, Hepaticopsida, and Anthocerotopsida.

Bryophytes help in soil conservation:
The bryophytes cover the soil. Therefore, whenever the rain comes it does not directly comes in contact with soil. Whenever there is rain and if the forest cover is densely populated by the bryophytes, then the rain first comes in contact with the bryophytes to move the soil that is the soil erosion, but the bryophytes prevent the soil erosion. The bryophyte plants can hold water and due to this water does not saturate in the soil. Therefore, the runoff of water from the soil is avoided. The runoff of soil is also avoided.

Formation of soil and development of vegetative cover:
Lichens are the pioneer of soil formation. The mosses are the bryophytes which again speed up the process of soil formation and the process of soil formation as a pedogenesis. In ecological succession, both lichens and bryophytes help in the process of pedogenesis that is the formation of soil. The bryophytes cover the whole ground area and it gives support to the other plants and animal species to survive in that condition. So, the formation of salient development of vegetative cover is both are the applications of the bryophytes. They not only help in the formation of soil that is the pedogenesis. It also covers the ground of the soil and it is the way to conserve the soil as well as providing shelter to the other small living organisms.

Bog succession:
Bog means wetlands. The wetland area is first occupied by bryophytes and specifically the sphagnum and other mosses form the feet and this bit acts as a ground for the seed germination of hydrophytes. The peat formed by these bryophytes and the premise of the hydrophytes together forms the mat on the aquatic habitat. The solid mat of organic matter lays on the aquatic land. The bryophytes and hydrophytes perform the important function of converting the aquatic sterile habitat into the solid affinity to cover which supports all the plants.

Bryophytes as rock builders:
Bryophytes can convert the rock into the soil that is the process of pedogenesis. Bryophytes can also act as rock builders. The bryophytes like Bryum and Hypnum grow in association with aquatic algae-like Chara and they grow in lakes, springs, and steams. The combination of some bryophytic species and some algal species like Chara growing in lakes, springs, and steeps contain a large amount of calcium bicarbonate. These plants convert their calcium bicarbonate into calcium carbonate. Upon exposure, this calcium carbonate is hardened and this harder calcium carbonate is later converted into rock and again this rock can be used as a building block blooms in the construction.

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