There are two major processes included in protein synthesis, and their descriptions are given below:
Transcription: It is the initial step in the central dogma process of molecular biology:
DNAâ†’RNA. It is the transference of genetic directions in DNA to mRNA. Throughout this process, a strand of mRNA is produced to accompany a DNA strand. This process occurs in three steps, including initiation, elongation, and termination.
The beginning of transcription is termed initiation. It befalls when the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a gene’s promoter region. The enzyme may then “read” the bases on one of the strands of DNA as the DNA unravels. The enzyme is instantly ready to make an mRNA strand with a base sequence that matches.
The addition of nucleotides to the mRNA strand is known as elongation.
The end of transcribing is called termination. The mRNA strand is completed and separated from the DNA.
In eukaryotes, the novel mRNA is not fully prepared for translation. It is known as pre-mRNA during this stage, and it has to undergo further processing before it departs from the nucleus as developed mRNA. The processing comprises polyadenylation, splicing, and editing.
Splicing eliminates introns from mRNA. Introns are the areas of the genome that do not code for a protein. The remaining mRNA is made up entirely of exons, which code for the protein. Ribonucleoproteins are tiny nucleoproteins that contain RNA and are required for the splicing process.
Some of the nucleotides in mRNA are changed during editing. Because of editing, a human protein called APOB, which aids in the transport of lipids in the blood, has two distinct versions. As editing inserts an earlier stop signal in mRNA, one version is smaller than the other.
Polyadenylation gives mRNA a “tail.” A series of As makes up the tail (adenine bases). It indicates that mRNA has concluded its life cycle. It also aids in the export of mRNA from the nucleus and shields mRNA from enzymes that could degrade it.
Translation: It is the subsequent component of the fundamental dogma of molecular biology:
RNAâ†’ Protein. In this process, the genetic code in mRNA is translated to produce a protein. After mRNA departs from the nucleus, it goes to a ribosome made of proteins and ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA). In mRNA, the ribosome translates the order of codons, and transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) molecules accurately carrying amino acids to the ribosome.
Eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein synthesis
Proteins are the main kind of biomolecule that every living organism needs to grow and develop. Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes generate different proteins for diverse functions and processes. Few proteins are utilized for formational aims, whereas others work as catalysts for biochemical responses. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic protein syntheses are distinctly different from each other. For example, protein synthesis in prokaryotes happens in the cytoplasm.
On the other hand, in eukaryotes, the initial step (transcription) happens in the nucleus. When the transcript (mRNA) is made, it continues to the cytoplasm, where the ribosomes are placed. Also, the mRNA is changed into an amino acid chain.
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