A normal kidneyâ€¯will filter about 24,000 meq of sodium per day. It can reabsorb 23800 and can also make a 1 to 2 meq change in 24-h urinary sodium excretion at the same period. The regulation of sodium excretion is impaired by diverse causes. Included are:
1. Glomerular filtrate’s intrarenal distribution
2. Hormonal reactions (aldosterone)
3. Physical peritubular causes (hydrostatic and oncotic pressure)
The kidney’s most critical job is to guarantee the high concentrations of purified sodium that are reabsorbed. The proximal tubule, Henleâ€™s loop, and distal tubules perform this function. The next significant function of the kidney is to hold sodium out of the urine in fewer amounts. The kidney must ensure that this sodium release is maintained in such a way as to preserve the sodium balance. All these various filtrations and reabsorbing systems all work as a fixed buffer kit that guarantees a relatively steady volume of the sodium sent to a collectingâ€¯duct.
Mechanism of Renal Sodium Excretion:
The amount of excretion of the sodium is maintained by the rate of the tubular resorption. This is because it does not get released and the rate of the glomerular filtration is almost constant. The human body does not maintain the excretion of sodium in the urine depending on the ECF concentration. The excretion of the sodium in the urine is regulated and maintained depending on the total amount of the extracellular fluid volume.
The mechanism of renal sodium excretion is divided into two parts:
1. Sodium transport:
The tubule reabsorbs the sodium at each segment of itself. Almost two-thirds of the total sodium transport is facilitated by the proximal tubule. In opposite to this, the loop of Henle, which is relatively thin does not contribute significantly to sodium resorption. The dense upward section of the Henleâ€™s loop contains just 25 percent of the sodium resorption. Just 5% of overall transport is borne by the early distal tubule, while approximately 3% of the remainder of the sodium resorption is carried by the late distal tubule and the collection ducts.
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