Adrenocortical hormones, based on their functions, can be grouped into three sections-Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids, and Androgens-
Mineralocorticoid hormones- They are produced in the outermost zone of the adrenal cortex, that is the zonaglomerulosa. Their role is to control the concentration of ions flowing in the bloodstream. The predominant hormone, aldosterone, is known to raise levels of sodium in the blood and decrease the levels of potassium in the blood by acting on specific kidney cells. Aldosterone binds with the receptors cells of the distal tubules of the kidneys, which triggers the ion channels to reabsorb sodium and excrete potassium. This ion gradient leads to the conservation of water. Indirectly it also affects the increase of blood volume and blood pressure.
Glucocorticoid hormone- this group of hormones are produced in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex, that is the zona fasciculata. These hormones control the way protein, fat, and carbohydrate molecules are processed by the human body. They inhibit cell-mediated immunity by decreasing the number of T cells. The functional activity of neutrophils, probably macrophages, are also decreased by them.
Androgens- These are also called sex hormones and are produced in the innermost region of the adrenal cortex, that is the zonareticularis. These androgenic hormones, namely the estrogen in females and testosterone in males, are known to regulate the development of sexual characteristics and reproductive organs of the gender in which they are produced.
Mechanism of the release of Adrenocortical hormone
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)secreted by the hypothalamus, triggers the anterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH). ACTH then acts on the cortex layer of the adrenal gland to release the adrenocortical hormones (androgens and cortisol). The increase in levels of cortisol provides negative feedback to the system as a result of which there is a decrease in the amount of CRH released from the hypothalamus.
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