There is a membrane potential across the plasma membrane of every cell. This membrane potential which is present around the plasma membrane is due to the concentration of ion, which is present inside of the cell concerning the extracellular matrix and because of the permeability of the plasma membrane. The action potential is also generated because of this membrane potential, and it is an active transport as it requires energy for the conduction of impulse. Ion channels which play an important role for conduction of action potential are sodium ions and potassium ion channels, whose permeability changes when the action potential generated. This process maintains the amount of sodium ion in the extracellular matrix and potassium ion in the cellular cytoplasm. Ion concentration gradient around the plasma membrane and specific portion of the ions concerning their gradient led to a formation of electrical potential difference which is called the membrane potential.
The primary active transport is associated with the metabolic energy source like adenosine triphosphate. The most common example of primary active transport is Sodium and potassium pump. Every animal cell has a lower concentration of Sodium and the higher concentration of potassium in the cell. This not balanced relation between Sodium and potassium is regulated by the active transport within the plasma membrane, which involves sodium-potassium ATPase breakdown of adenosine triphosphate molecule to produce adenosine diphosphate. In hydrolyzation of an ATP molecule, there is a movement of sodium ions inside the cell and potassium ions outside the cell this contributes to the difference in charge in the cell and outside the cell. This pump has to subunit alpha, and beta called a heterodimer. The alpha subunit is responsible for hydrolyzation of ATP ion in contrast beta subunit is responsible for assembling the ATPase tube within the endoplasmic reticulum. The cardiac glycoside causes the suppression of the sodium-potassium pump; these are used in the treatment of congestive heart disease because they are responsible for increasing the contraction within the heart muscle by suppressing the sodium-potassium pump.
These are excitable nerve cell and secretory cell as changes in the membrane potential of the cell causes of conduction of impulses. Resting potential It refers to the condition in which the membrane of the nerve cell is at rest. There is a high concentration of Sodium in the extracellular matrix and low concentration of potassium; in contrast, and there is a high concentration of potassium within the cell and low concentration of potassium and extracellular matrix. This chemical gradient present around the plasma membrane is regulated by the transportation of sodium and potassium ion by Sodium and potassium pump. There is an enormous potassium leaky channels in the plasma membrane these channels are responsible for transporting the potassium ion to move freely along their electrochemical gradient. As the positive charge is transferring to the cell-extracellular matrix left the negative charge within the cell and creating a potential difference. This is termed as resting potential the value of resting potential is -70 mV as the interior of the cell is more negatively charged at this time the nerve cell is said to be polarized. Initiation of action potential The variation in the electrical potential of the membrane causes changes in the motion of ion over the membrane. If an inward flow of positively charged ion increases in comparison with the resting state depolarization of membrane occurs. This is the condition during which the interior of the cell becomes less negative in comparison with the polarized state its value increases to -40mV. In contrast, if the flow of positive charge ion increases in the extracellular matrix concerning the resting state the membrane get hyperpolarized, this is the condition during which interior of the cell becomes more negative as compared to the resting membrane potential. This rapid hyperpolarization and depolarization of the membrane of the nerve cell lead to the initiation of the action potential. The action potential is responsible for conduction of impulses at long distance. The movement of potassium ions via potassium channel is the main reason for or the resting potential in the membrane. The action potential is generated principally because of the opening of sodium ion channels. At the time of action potential, there is a motion of sodium ion by the sodium ion channels according to their concentration gradient inside the cell. Sodium-ion channel can be found in three states closed but capable of open, open and inactivated. During the resting membrane potential the sodium ion channels are in the closed state. Therefore sodium cannot enter inside the cell during the resting state. When the brain is triggered, it causes the opening of the voltage-gated sodium channel, which permits the entry of sodium ions inside the cell. Move inside the cell membrane become depolarize as the potential membrane changes to + 30mV. Please voltage-gated sodium and channel tendto inactivate themselves, which causes them to close again rapidly, but the membrane is still in the depolarized state. At that time voltage-gated sodium and channel are in an inactive state and cannot open for a millisecond. Another channel which helps to draw the depolarised plasma membrane quickly to its polarised state are voltage-gated potassium ion channel. The opening of potassium causes the rapid flow of potassium ion out of the cell cytoplasm, causing the membrane to revert at its equilibrium potential this is called repolarisation. The period during which unexcitable cell cannot produce another action potential in response to a normal stimulus is refractory period. The refractory period can be an absolute refractive period, even the application of very strong stimuli cannot what caused the second action potential this is a time when sodium and channel are in the inactive state.
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