The genetically-related species evolutionary history of a group is called a phylogeny, that includes ancestor and descendant species. The described phylogeny tree diagram is generally used, known as a phylogenetic tree. Darwin first used to describe phylogeny in his “Tree of LifeË®. The phylogenetic tree represents how species evolved with the time, from the bottom of the tree to the top. As the tree progresses, the new branches are formed on the tree of species. Few species additionally branched into some additional descendent species. Some of the species died or extinct with no trace of descendants
In modern biology, still, phylogenetic trees are used to represent evolutionary historyâ€”the tips and genetically related species are represented by the branches. The branches represents common ancestry. The common ancestor implies to the last ancestor species that descendent shared before they have found the varied evolutionary paths. Ancestors species are similar to your own ancestors, and the most recent ancestor which you share with your sibling may have is your parents. Similarly, the most common ancestor you shared with your first cousin is your grandparents, and the common ancestor you share with your second cousin is your great grandparents. In general, if there is distant relationship with you and your relatives. That means the farther in the past you shared common relationships. The same applies for the related species. If there is more distant the relationship between the two species, it means the more back in the time they must have shared the common ancestor.
As you know now, a cladogram is a graphical method to show how the relation between species descendent from a common ancestor. A classification of the species based on these relationships is known as a phylogenetic classification.
In a phylogenetic classification species in a clade with their common ancestor are placed together. It is known as cladogram places.
In the Linnaean classification, the species are grouped according to their physical traits. This type of classification helps to separate both birds and mammals from their reptilian ancestors. So, the Linnaean classification finds it challenging to show the evolutionary relationships between the species.
Both of these systems of representation and classification of species have advantages and disadvantages. But most of the researchers and biologists think phylogenetic classification is a better method as compared to Linnaean classification. The reason can be, it’s basis is evolutionary relationships and instead of physical appearance and traits. However, both methods have a place in the classification of species. Below we will see the features of phylogenic classifications.
Features of Phylogenic Classifications
It treats all levels of a cladogram as similar.
It doesn’t have any limit on the number of levels in the cladogram.
It is mainly used to represent the evolutionary process of the species.
It is only for the species which are related by ancestry.
It does not provide you a means for of naming species.
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