Reproduction is a natural process through which, every organism maintains its existence on earth. It is the process by which, an adult parent gives rise to young offspring. The reproduction process is an important step as reproduction paves the way for the continuity of the species. Without reproduction, there would be no offspring and the survival of the species would cease to exist, leading to extinction. Reproduction can be sexual or asexual and there are different modes of reproduction, which can be divided into viviparous, oviparous, and ovoviviparous. Viviparity is the mode of reproduction where embryos develop inside the body of the parent and give birth to the offspring. In such animals, the young ones are nourished by a special structure called the placenta. Mammals including humans are viviparous as the offspring develops inside the parent. In the case of ovoviviparous animals, embryos develop in an egg inside the body of the mother, and after hatching, they come out of the motherâ€™s body. So, the main difference between oviparous and ovoviviparous is the development of an embryo inside the egg or outside the body.
Reproduction in oviparous animals
Oviparity is a mode of reproduction where offspring develop outside the parental body. Here fertilization of the egg can happen either externally or internally but the new one will hatch outside the body. However, in some animals, there may occur little embryonic development inside the mother or the parent. This mode of reproduction is common among birds, reptiles, amphibians, and snakes. Animals, which exhibit oviparity are known as the oviparous animals. The number of eggs laying may vary from one to numerous. Many amphibians and snakes lay more eggs such the offsprings hatch out, and survive against predators, which are more in number. However, some other groups of animals like reptiles lay a fewer number of eggs, maybe only one, but it is with the very thick shell to protect their offspring from the climate changes and predators. For oviparous animals, the nutrients and necessary items for the offspring are distributed from the egg yolk. The egg protein vitellogenin is the main energy provider for the developing embryo. The important immunoglobulin and hormones are also supplied from the egg yolk. So, the egg size and duration of hatching time are correlated with each other to ensure the quality of the progeny. This whole process of feeding the new one using the egg yolk is called lecithotrophic.
Internal and external fertilization
Fertilization, which is the male and female gametesâ€™ fusion can be either internal or external. In internal fertilization, the deposition of the sperms by the males is done inside the female genital tract. The sperm fuses with the egg and fertilization can occur internally. The fertilized egg, which has the zygote, later is released from the body and the development of the whole organism occurs outside the body. This happens in the case of internal fertilization. In contrast, in some animals like fish, the unfertilized egg would be released outside the body and this is followed by the fusion of the sperm with the egg. This is known as external fertilization as the process of fertilization occurs outside the body. Traditionally, this was known as oviparity.
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