Ovoviviparous Animals in Sexual Reproduction

All the various terms such as ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, ovivipary, or aplacental viviparity are utilized to connect the gap between various methods of sexual reproduction. The word viviparity means live birth, while the term ovoviviparity is considered as a subset of the bigger picture of sexual reproduction. Ovoviviparity is also called aplacental viviparity. Although this term is not commonly used as its definition is still not clear among researchers & scholars. While in histotrophy the embryo develops as it gets its nutrition from the uterine secretions that are histotroph of the mother. Based on the species, the Ovoviviparous animals can also receive nutrition from various other sources such as unfertilized egg yolks or by cannibalizing their siblings.

Internal Fertilization and Incubation:
The fertilization of the egg in the ovoviviparous animals normally takes place internally. This is successful as a result of copulation. An example of this can be the male shark inserts his clasper in the female & then he releases the sperms. The eggs get fertilized while they are present in the oviducts & then they continue their development there. The guppy fishes can store some extra sperms which can cause them to fertilize for the upcoming 8 months. When the young ones come out of the eggs, they remain inside the female oviduct. There they continue their development till they are mature to be born & survived in the outside world.

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Ovoviviparity vs. Oviparity and Mammal Development:
Ovoviviparity is a very different method of sexual reproduction from oviparity that is an egg-laying method. The main difference faced in oviparity is the eggs may get fertilized internally or they cannot. The eggs get laid and they are heavily dependent on the yolk sac for their nourishment till they are hatched. Ovoviviparous organisms include certain species of shark, like the basking shark, species of guppy fish, snakes & certain insects. All the species of the rays are ovoviviparous.

However, these animals allow the young one to develop within the mother’s body until they are ready to survive in the outside environment. The offspring or the embryos of the ovoviviparous animals receive their nourishment from the yolk of the egg sac. After they get hatched, they stay inside the bodies of the females. There they continue to mature & develop. They lack an umbilical cord that helps to connect embryos to their mothers. They also do not have a placenta. The placenta is useful in transporting food, oxygen, and waste exchange. Certain species of ovoviviparous animals like the sharks and rays have a method for gas exchange for the eggs that are developing inside the womb of the female. In these situations, the egg sac is very thin or it is just like a membrane. When the development of young ones is complete, they are given birth

Ovoviviparous Birth:
The ovoviviparous animals delay their birth after the egg is hatched. At this time the offsprings are even more capable of surviving on their own, feeding themselves & defending themselves in the outside environment. When they enter the environment outside, they are more strong, mature & in their advanced stage of development as compared with the oviparous young ones. Their size is also bigger as compared with the similar animals that hatch from eggs.In garter snake, the young ones are born while they are still enclosed in the amniotic sac, although they can get out of it very swiftly. In many species of insects, the young ones are born as larvae when they are suitable to get hatched very quickly, or else they can be born at a later stage in their development.

The number of young ones that are given birth at one time depends on the species of the ovoviviparous animals.In the case of female guppy fish, they can give live birth to around 200 young ones which are called fries over a time frame.The young ones of ovoviviparous amphibians are at times born as larvae. These larvae then undergo metamorphosis outside the female’s body. The method of sexual reproduction is dependent on the relations that the zygote and parents share. There are three prime methods of sexual reproduction in ovoviviparous amphibians. They are ovuliparity, oviparity, ovo-viviparity and ovalarviparity.



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