The main hormones that impact blood glucose regulation include insulin, glucagon, amylin, and somatostatin. These hormones are secreted by the pancreas of the human body which has a crucial role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body.
Insulinâ€™s primary role is to decrease the blood glucose level in the body. However, glucagonâ€™s primary role is to increase the blood glucose level in the body. Amylin in the body creates a feeling of satisfaction after consuming food to prevent overeating. Somatostatin, on the other hand, balances the amount of insulin and glucagon in the body.
Soon after one eats a meal, blood glucose level rises and will be at the highest two hours post-meal. The minimum amount of blood glucose required by a healthy body is 60-100 mg/ dL. A high concentration of glucose in the body is poison for the body and causes toxicity which further needs treatment in general
A normal body can regulate the incoming surge of glucose. However, a person with a deformed pancreas or an aged person may face difficulty in glucose regulation. A healthy pancreas would migrate 10% of the total glucose to the liver, where glucose would be converted to glycogen before getting stored in there. The liver is capable of converting glycogen to glucose whenever the need arises. Moreover, skeletal muscles would store up to 1% of the glycogen.
There are health problems associated with an abnormal level of glucose in the body, which are discussed below.
Acute condition: When the body’s glucose level is greater than 300 mg/dL, then the body causes polyuria and often can lead to dehydration.
Chronic condition: When the glucose level in the body is constantly maintained at 120-130 mg/ dL for a prolonged period, then there is a chance of tissue damage, making the person prone to infections quite too often.
Usually, diabetes mellitus patients have recorded 120-130 mg/dl of glucose all the time in their blood.
Generally, these four hormones are capable of regulating the blood glucose level in the blood. Their role is quite a complicated process. However, the following steps are followed in glucose regulation.
As soon as one eats a heavy meal with a huge load of carbohydrates, the body stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas.
Part of this carbohydrate gets converted to glucagon in the liver and skeletal muscles.
Insulin also helps in mobilizing the blood glucose to different cellular structures and organs to ensure enough glucose uptake happens.
When the blood glucose level decreases in the body, it leads to the release of glucose from glucagon in the liver.
Usually, amylin releases when a person is consuming food. This hormone specifically increases the satiety level in people, thus preventing over-eating. However, patients suffering from diabetes mellitus have been shown to have no amylin and no insulin roles. Thus, they tend to over-eat in general.
Incretins are secreted from the cells of the small intestine, and they increase satiety by slowing down the gastric emptying process.
Somatostatin release regulates the release of glucagon and insulin, and thus it indirectly plays a role in controlling the blood glucose in the body.
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