Parasitic Ecdysozoans Disease in Humans

The ecdysozoans parasites are super phylum’s, that belong to the protostome animal group. The organisms in the ecdysozoans group are known for their strong cuticle outer layer. Their exoskeleton is highly flexible and protects the organism and, the cuticle rotationally undergoes an ecdysis process. Ecdysozoa comprises two large phylum groups within them with numerous infectious species. The two large phylum groups are the phylum Nematoda and the phylum Arthropoda. The organisms that are present in the phylum Arthropoda usually act as vectors, that transport viral infections from a pathogen to the host (human). The vectors transport the pathogenic particles through a biological or mechanical process. The most commonly known vectors are mosquitoes and ticks. The disease transported by arthropod vectors is termed an arboviral disease, which is mostly transmitted in warm and wet climates. In contrast, the organisms of the phylum Nematoda reside in the intestine of the human, by burrowing through the human skin and to reach the intestine.

Arthropods infections in humans:
Arthropods are usually used as vectors to transport diseases from the pathogens to the host (humans). It exhibits two types of transmission such as mechanical and biological transmission.

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Mechanical transmission occurs through the vectors that deposit the pathogens/viral genes on any surfaces, from where the host may ingest or absorb it accidentally.

Biological transmission occurs through the arthropod vectors that directly inject the viral particle into the host. Example: mosquitoes the arthropod acts as a vector to transport dengue or malaria

The most commonly known vectors are mosquitoes, fleas, sand flies, lice, ticks, and mites.

These anthropoid vectors exhibit hematophagous behaviors for transmitting the viral infection into the host bloodstream.

Examples include chikungunya, dengue, Leishmaniasis, Onchocerciasis, African sleeping sickness, Pulex irritans, and xenopsylla cheopis.

Disease caused by parasitic ecdysozoans:
a. Nematodes:

Ascariasis is caused by ingesting nematode eggs, which results in intestine blockages and impairment in children.

Trichuriasis, are whipworm infections that are caused by the ingestion of the eggs. If not treated trichuriasis leads to anemia, colon and appendix infection, and rectal prolapse.

Enterobiasis or pinworm infection is a common, contagious infestation that is caused by swallowing or inhaling the tiny pinworm egg that leads to rectal itching, stomach pain, insomnia.

Strongyloidiasis is roundworm infections that cause Eosinophilic pneumonia, Disseminated strongyloidiasis, and malnutrition.

Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic filarial infection caused by a mosquito bite. It affects the branches of the pulmonary artery and causes granuloma.

b. Arthropods:

Sand and black fly is known as pool feeders causes Leishmaniasis and Onchocerciasis diseases. The pool survives by feeding the host blood by chewing the host’s skin.

Vectors, such as insects, are accountable for malaria, filariasis, and arbovirus infection.

Sandflies also cause leishmaniasis, but infection, in this case, is caused through saliva.

Back flies cause Onchocerciasis

The arthropod vector, tsetse flies causes African sleeping sickness by transmitting human African trypanosomiasis.

The vector Aedes mosquito causes avian malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever.


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