Phosphate imbalance and renal failure

The body relies on food to get its supply of resources. Our body needs to have food and resources coming in continuously because we need a lot of fuel. The larger an animal is the more food they need. Thus blue whales eat a ton of food to keep swimming and survive in the ocean. However, the metabolism of an animal also affects the amount of food they eat. Animals like rats show a very high metabolism rate and so they have to consume a lot more food that is relative to their body weight. We need a large variety of food because different food will have different components. These are the main reasons why certain medical conditions will need you to alter your diet. The primary source of energy in our body is glucose. It gets taken into the mitochondria and a process called glycolysis occurs. This leads to the production of ATP which gives its energy to make processes in the body. When a certain protein needs to be made, the ribosome moves onto the mRNA, and it picks and chooses which amino acids it needs from the cytoplasm. Fats contain your main storage of energy, they are a reserve source. But there are a lot of functions that use other nutrients as well like minerals. Calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, phosphate, and other minerals are involved in the body. Phosphate is also one of the most important minerals in our body and it helps to perform several functions. Phosphate also makes up many materials in the cell. DNA has a phosphate backbone with a phosphate group and a pentose sugar. Thus phosphate is needed to make DNA and RNA. The cell membrane also contains phospholipids which are made up of a hydrophobic head and a hydrophilic tail. Phosphorus also plays a part in metabolism and it combines with nitrogen to help with this process.

This mineral is found in some foods like milk, meat, nuts, and grains. It is integral to our body because it helps to control the formation of teeth and bones. Phosphate is the mineral that regulates the absorption of calcium into the bones. It is interesting to note that majority of the phosphate that is in the body is stored inside the bones. This is about 85% of the total phosphate, the remaining 15 % is found in various places in the body like the tissues. Phosphate and calcium work together to regulate bone formation. If there is too little calcium in the body, the level of phosphate will rise as they are inversely proportional. This will cause the parathyroid glands, which are a set of four lobes that are present on the thyroid gland to secrete PTH or parathyroid hormone. This hormone moves to the bones where it influences them to secrete calcium. When the calcium level is high, the phosphate level is low. Thus the decrease of phosphate causes the release of PTH which makes the kidneys retain phosphate. These phosphate levels increase and they can help the calcium to get reabsorbed into your bones. Calcitonin is also released from the parathyroid hormones.

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The kidney and Phosphate imbalance:
The kidney plays a vital role in phosphate regulation. An imbalance in the concentration of phosphate can cause severe effects on the body. This is because phosphate is an integral part of the cell membrane and it is also one of the primary factors that regulate the presence of calcium in the blood. Two specific conditions are associated with a phosphate imbalance, hyperphosphatemia, and hypophosphatemia:

• Hyperphosphatemia:

This condition is seen when the level of phosphate in the body is very high. This causes a lot of the calcium that is present in the blood to be reabsorbed and thus there is less calcium in the blood. This causes hypercalcemia and thus patients report that they feel joint and muscle pain, weakness, and numbness.

• Hypophosphatemia:

It is a condition when there is a low concentration of phosphorus in the blood. A low concentration of phosphorus also means that the calcium is not being absorbed into the bones properly. Thus this leads to the softening of bones and conditions like rickets can arise. This can cause issues in neurological functioning and the affected individuals can feel confusion.

Renal failure:
Renal failure is usually caused by factors that damage the nephrons in the kidney or make them unable to function. Chronic kidney disease is a condition that makes your kidneys unable to function. Thus the exchange completely stops and the mechanism of the kidneys stops working. The only way to get past a condition that makes your kidneys stop is to use dialysis or find a suitable organ donor. It has been observed that people with renal failure usually have extremely high levels of phosphate. This is likely because this is the only way that phosphate can escape from the body. A certain amount of phosphate will go into the bones but a lot of it has nowhere to go so it stays in the blood.

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