After conception, a single-celled zygote moves through the fallopian tube towards the endometrial lining of the uterus. The zygote then implants itself into the endometrial lining and starts dividing to form a blastocyst. This blastocyst has a layer called the chorion. Chorion is responsible for the release of the human beta chorionic gonadotropin (Î²-hCG) hormone. It is structurally very much alike to luteinizing hormone. It is a heterodimeric glycoprotein consist of Î± and Î² sub-units. The C-terminal Î² subunit extension that functions to increase its half-life while circulating. It functions through an LH/CG receptor, which shows a higher affinity for CG than LH. It is a paracrine hormone. In humans, the placenta releases two isoforms GnRH- I and GnRH-II both signalling through the similar receptor. GnRH-II shows a 70% homology to GnRH- I. HCG is the hormone responsible for nausea and vomiting. This hormone helps in maintaining the corpus luteum to ensure that the levels of progesterone are adequate to maintain the endometrial lining. If no fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum starts degrading at the end of two weeksâ€™ time after ovulation. However, even after conception, the lining of the endometrium needs to be thick enough for implantation of a zygote to happen. This degradation of corpus luteum is prevented by CG thus ensuring successful implantation of the zygote. During pregnancy tests, levels of this hormone are checked in the blood/urine to confirm pregnancy.
In the beginning, the diffusion of waste and gases takes place through the endometrial lining itself. With the progressing trimester, the endometrial lining and outer layer of the embryo start merging. This merge gives rise to a new organ called the placenta. With its formation, the function of waste disposal and gaseous exchange is now done by the placenta. The placenta becomes fully functioning at the start of the second semester and functions until the delivery of the baby. The waste chemicals such as bilirubin from foetus are exchanged by the placenta to the motherâ€™s blood. In the motherâ€™s liver, it is detoxified. It allows the passage of immunoglobins, which help to provide passive immunity to the growing baby. It also protects the baby from the mothersâ€™ own immune system by producing Neurokinin B-containing phosphocholine molecules.
Placental hormones start production in the early stages of blastocyst development. Moreover, with its full development, the levels of placental hormones increase throughout the gestation period. Placenta produces both steroid and protein hormones. During the first 12 weeks, there is a sharp increase in placental estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin. Due to the increase in progesterone levels, the mother may feel fatigued or sleepy. The placenta in human releases several types of estrogen but estriol is the main one. They reach their peak levels at the end of the gestation period. Their main effects include the stimulation of myometrium growth. High levels of estrogens prepare the uterus for birth by inducing the receptors for oxytocin. Another effect of estrogen is stimulating the growth of mammary glands. Both progesterone and estrogen suppress gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. Estrogen plays a role in inducing food cravings and increased appetite.
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