Questions on Gender in communication

How do you do gender in your everyday conversations? Provide an example that focuses on the techniques mentioned in the chapter (politeness, humor, tone of voice,  aggressiveness… etc)

What is identity work?

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Questions on Gender in communication
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Provide an example of vocal fry.

Why have women been labeled un-funny?

Gender in Communication

Third Edition

2

 

 

This book honors our mothers:

Maj. Helen Mary Finks Palczewski (1921–1999)

Victoria DeFrancisco Leto (1924–2004)

Adele Eilers Pruin (1929–)

Mary Lu Dick (1956–)

This book also honors Cate’s life partner:

Arnold James Madsen (1958–2017)

Arnie was a good man. In this political moment, during which good men committed to gender/sex justice are sorely needed, our loss of Arnie is particularly painful. Be good. Do good.

3

 

 

Gender in Communication A Critical Introduction

Third Edition

Catherine Helen Palczewski University of Northern Iowa Victoria Pruin DeFrancisco University of Northern Iowa Danielle Dick McGeough University of Northern Iowa

4

 

 

FOR INFORMATION:

SAGE Publications, Inc.

2455 Teller Road

Thousand Oaks, California 91320

E-mail: [email protected]

SAGE Publications Ltd.

1 Oliver’s Yard

55 City Road

London EC1Y 1SP

United Kingdom

SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.

B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area

Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044

India

SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.

3 Church Street

#10-04 Samsung Hub

Singapore 049483

Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Palczewski, Catherine Helen, author. | DeFrancisco, Victoria L. (Victoria Leto), author. | McGeough, Danielle Dick, author.

Title: Gender in communication : a critical introduction / Catherine Helen Palczewski, University of Northern Iowa, Victoria Pruin DeFrancisco, University of Northern Iowa, Danielle Dick McGeough, University of Northern Iowa.

Other titles: Communicating gender diversity

Description: Third Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications, [2018] | Revised edition of the authors’ Gender in communication, [2014] | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017034869 | ISBN 9781506358451 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Sex role. | Gender identity. | Communication—Social aspects. | Communication—Sex differences. | Sexism in language.

Classification: LCC HQ1075 .D43 2018 | DDC 305.3—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017034869

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Terri Accomazzo

Production Editor: Laureen Gleason

Copy Editor: Deanna Noga

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Sarah J. Duffy

5

 

 

Indexer: Marilyn Augst

Cover Designer: Scott Van Atta

Marketing Manager: Allison Henry

6

 

 

Brief Contents

1. Preface 2. PART I: Foundations

1. Chapter 1 Developing a Critical Gender/Sex Lens 2. Chapter 2 Theories of Gender/Sex 3. Chapter 3 Gendered/Sexed Voices 4. Chapter 4 Gendered/Sexed Bodies 5. Chapter 5 Gendered/Sexed Language

3. PART II: Institutions 1. Chapter 6 An Introduction to Gender in Social Institutions 2. Chapter 7 Families 3. Chapter 8 Education 4. Chapter 9 Work 5. Chapter 10 Religion 6. Chapter 11 Media 7. Chapter 12 One Last Look Through a Critical Gendered Lens

4. References 5. Index 6. About the Authors

7

 

 

Detailed Contents

Preface Events Informing the Third Edition

The 2016 Presidential Election The Women’s March on Washington The Silencing of Elizabeth Warren The Scolding of April Ryan and Maxine Waters

Why Studying Gender in Communication Is Important Core Principles Organization of the Book New to This Edition Individual Acknowledgments Social Acknowledgments

PART I: Foundations Chapter 1 Developing a Critical Gender/Sex Lens

Intersectionality Gender and Sex, Gender/Sex Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Sexuality and Romantic Attraction Race and Ethnicity National Identity Socioeconomic Class Intersectionality Conclusion

Communication Systemic Gendered Violence Conclusion

Chapter 2 Theories of Gender/Sex Biological Theories

Chromosomes (Hormones and Genitalia) Brain Development Biological Theories Conclusion

Psychological Theories Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Feminism Social Learning Psychological Theories Conclusion

Critical/Cultural Theories Shared Assumptions Multiracial and Global Feminisms

8

 

 

Queer Theory Critical/Cultural Theories Conclusion

Applying Gender Theory: Some Useful Criteria Conclusion

Chapter 3 Gendered/Sexed Voices Conversation Work

Politeness Humor Swearing

Identity Work Feminine Conversational Style Masculine Conversational Style Gay and Lesbian Conversational Styles Trans and Gender Non-Conforming Conversational Styles

Relationship Work Children’s Play Ineffective Conflict Management Conversational Aggression

Conclusion Chapter 4 Gendered/Sexed Bodies

Body Politics Gender Performativity Objectification

Disciplining Gendered Bodies Attractiveness Attractive Men Attractive Women Clothing Embodied Space Embodied Movement

Refusing the Command Performance Agency Using Norms Against Each Other Making Norms Visible Overtly Challenging Norms Revaluing the Body

Conclusion Chapter 5 Gendered/Sexed Language

The Power of Language Language Can Be Used to Oppress and Subordinate

9

 

 

He/Man Language Semantic Derogation Semantic Imbalance Semantic Polarization Marked and Unmarked Terms Trivialization Naming Lack of Vocabulary The Truncated Passive The Falsely Universal We The Deverbing of Woman Language as Violence

Language as Resistance Talking Back Developing a New Language Resignification Strategic Essentialism and Rhetorics of Difference Moving Over

Conclusion PART II: Institutions

Chapter 6 An Introduction to Gender in Social Institutions Prejudice Versus Institutionalized Discrimination Institutional Control Institutionalized Gendered/Sexed Violence Preview

Chapter 7 Families Defining Family and Gender/Sex Roles The Nuclear Family The State of Families Doing and Undoing Motherhood Communicating in Families

Parent-Child Communication Couple Communication

(Un)Doing Family Singles and Childfree People Creative Undoing of Family Engaged Fatherhood Same-Sex Parents Raising Transgender Children

Conclusion

10

 

 

Chapter 8 Education The Politics of Knowledge

The History of Education: Gendered/Sexed, Raced, and Classed Hidden Curriculum: Sexist, Racist, Classist, and Heterosexist

Gendered Expectations and Interpersonal Communication Classroom Interactions Bullying, Harassment, and Sexual Assault

Emancipatory Education Curricula Laws Globally

Conclusion Chapter 9 Work

Pay Equity and Job Segregation Sex Discrimination in the Workplace Work as Liberation and Locations of Empowerment Conclusion

Chapter 10 Religion Why Study Religion, Gender, and Communication? Religion and Gender/Sex Roles

Gender, Sex, and Religiosity Sex and Institutional Religious Power Complementarians and Egalitarians Muscular Christianity

Religion and Sexuality Religion as Liberation and Locations of Empowerment

African Americans and Religion Veiling Practices Rereading the History of Women Religious

Conclusion Chapter 11 Media

Defining Media and How They Function Media Hegemony or Polysemy Media Polyvalence

The Gaze(s) Ways of Seeing The Gaze An Oppositional Gaze

Who Is Represented in Media News

11

 

 

Film Television and Scripted Programming Video Games

How People Are Represented Sexualization of Women “Masculinity in Crisis”

Conclusion Chapter 12 One Last Look Through a Critical Gendered Lens

References Index About the Authors

12

 

 

13

 

 

14

 

 

Preface

As we worked through the revisions for this third edition throughout 2016 and into the summer of 2017, a number of events transpired that threw into relief the importance of gender in communication: the presidential campaign, the Women’s March on Washington, the silencing of Senator Elizabeth Warren, and the scolding of reporter April Ryan and Representative Maxine Waters. All these events have historical antecedents. So first a little more detail on the events.

15

 

 

Events Informing the Third Edition

16

 

 

The 2016 Presidential Election

In the summer of 2016, former senator and secretary of state Hillary Clinton won the Democratic nomination for the presidency, but she later lost the electoral college vote to businessperson and reality TV figure Donald Trump. No single factor explains the election, but research indicated that sexism likely had something to do with the result (Maxwell & Shields, 2017). Although polls indicated many Trump voters prior to the election voiced concerns about Clinton’s use of personal e-mail, after the election they indicated they were not concerned about Trump’s use of a personal e-mail server, leading one commentator to conclude, “This news proves that Hillary Clinton’s loss was about sexism, not her emails” (Strassner, 2017). Even though Clinton testified for more than 11 hours about Benghazi and turned over all her files and nothing was found, criticism persisted. Why?

An experimental study about backlash against female politicians provided one explanation. Male politicians who were perceived as power-seeking were also perceived to be “more assertive, stronger, and tougher” and have “greater competence” while women politicians who were perceived as power-seeking were seen as uncaring and people responded to them with moral outrage (Okimoto & Brescoll, 2010). General resistance to female candidates has been demonstrated in experiments that found 26% of the population express anger at the idea of a female president (Streb, Burrell, Frederick, & Genovese, 2008).

The findings of these predictive studies were confirmed by research on 2016voters. University of Arkansas researchers found that “modern Sexism did influence the 2016 presidential election for many Americans” (Maxwell & Shields, 2017). Modern sexism, defined as hostility or resentment toward working women, generally was more pervasive among White U.S. citizens and southerners and was not exclusive to men. The conclusion of the study: Of White Independents and Democrats, 11 million men and 6.5 million women “feel enough animosity towards working women and feminists to make them unlikely to vote for one of them— even from their own party” (Maxwell & Shields, 2017).

Regardless of your opinion of the electoral outcome, gender in communication played a role in the election. But it is important to remember that this was not the first, or only, election in which gender and sex played a role. For every contemporary example of women in politics, a long history of struggle precedes it.

Clinton was not the first woman to run for the presidency. In 1872, Victoria Woodhull ran, even before women had the right to vote. In 1884, Belva Ann Lockwood was the first woman to actually appear on ballots. In 1964, Margaret Chase Smith was the first woman to receive nomination votes at a major party’s convention. In 1972, Shirley Chisholm, the first Black woman elected to Congress, earned delegates at the Democratic National Convention. Patsy Matsu Takemoto Mink and Linda Jenness ran in 1972, Pat Schroeder in 1988, Elizabeth Dole in 2000, and Carol Moseley Braun in 2004. For any contemporary issue related to gender in communication, a long history precedes it. The same is true for this book. Our ability to write this book, and to cite research about gender in communication, is the product of a history of activism, scholarship, and writing by others.

17

 

 

Many of the arguments for Trump and against Clinton hearkened back to arguments originally used to deny women the right to vote. On at least 12 different occasions, Trump’s running mate, Mike Pence, commented on how Trump being “broad-shouldered” qualified him for the presidency. For example, Pence indicated he agreed to run with Trump because “he embodies American strength, and I know that he will provide that kind of broad-shouldered American strength on the global stage as well” (as cited in Chait, 2016). Although Pence denied that the comments had anything to do with masculinity (Griffiths, 2016), the repeated references to shoulders and strength sounded similar to comments from 100 years ago.

One of the main arguments against women voting was that their bodies were too weak to enforce their vote. The New York Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage, in a circa 1910 statement presented to both houses of the U.S. Congress, noted: “To extend the suffrage to women would be to introduce into the electorate a vast non-combatant party, incapable of enforcing its own rule” (as cited in Hazard, 1910, p. 88). British-born historian and journalist Goldwin Smith, in his commentary on the question of woman suffrage, explained: “Political power has hitherto been exercised by the male sex . . . because man alone could uphold government and enforce the law” (as cited in “Opinions,” 1912, p. 6). Author Rossiter Johnson worried, “To make any party victorious at the polls by means of blank-cartridge ballots would only present an increased temptation to the numerical minority to assert itself as the military majority. . . . If an election is carried by a preponderance of votes cast by women, who is to enforce the verdict?” (as cited in “Opinions,” 1912, p. 5). Men’s physical strength was foregrounded as central to their political strength. These contemporary comparisons to historical moments did not end with the election.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

How It Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

 

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper