Organic reactions will occur when the HOMO of a nucleophile will transfer its two electrons to the LUMO of an electrophile, and they overlap to form new bonds. The HOMO and the LUMO must have a similar energy, must have compatible orientation, and they should attract each other in terms of charge.
The movement of electrons is represented by using curved arrows in the mechanisms. The arrow starts at the nucleophile and ends at the electrophile involved in the reaction when a bond is made. If a bond has to be broken, then the arrow starts at that bond and ends at the atom which is leaving with the pair of electrons.
Two concepts must be studied for organic reactions. The first one is about the structure and representation of organic compounds, and the second one is about how the electrons move during an organic reaction. This is called mechanism, and the movement of the electrons is shown by curved arrows from the electron-rich component to the electron-deficient component in an organic reaction mechanism.
In organic chemistry, all the reactions are said to occur between an electron-rich species called nucleophile and another electron-deficient species called electrophile. The nucleophile donates electrons whereas, the electrophile accepts electrons. The nucleophile can be an atom with a lone pair of electrons or an atom with a fully occupied orbital, and an electrophile can be an atom with empty or half-filled orbitals, or they can both be dipoles. They must attract each other, have compatible orbital (the HOMO of the nucleophile and the LUMO of electrophile) symmetry, cross the activation energy barrier, and only then they can give products.
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