Protein synthesis involves the cooperative function of three different RNAs.
Messenger RNA: Information is carried from the DNA by mRNA in the form of triplet codons. Each codon codes for a particular amino acid. Protein synthesis involves 22 standard amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA: It forms ribosomes with the help of specific proteins. Ribosomal RNA is the most abundant RNA, which makesup 80% of the total RNA.
Eukaryotes contain 80S ribosomes that have four different rRNA molecules- 18S, 28S, 5.8S, and 5S rRNAs and prokaryotes that contain 70S ribosomes that have 3 different RNA molecules â€“ 23S, 16S, and 5S rRNAs.
23S and28S rRNAs have catalytic activity while 18S and16S rRNAs are involved in the correct positioning of mRNA.
Ribosomes are ribonucleo proteins containing both rRNA and r-proteins. Ribosomes contain two subunits – large subunits and small subunits. They catalyzes the integration of amino acids into the protein chain in 5â€™to3â€™ direction.
Transfer RNA: It is also known as adaptor RNA. It provides an interface between the codon and amino acid language. It has a cloverleaf-like secondary structure and the tertiary structure is L-shaped. The secondary structure has well-defined stems and loop- acceptor arm, D arm, TÏˆC arm, and anticodon arm.
It accepts the incoming amino acid by forming a covalent bond between the carboxyl group (-COOH) of amino acid and the hydroxyl group of adenine present at the 3â€™end of tRNA. Such tRNA is said to be charged and is known as aminoacyl tRNA and this is catalyzed by the enzyme aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
Steps in Protein Synthesis:
1. Initiation: Protein synthesis starts with the binding of ribosomes to the start codon that is present on the mRNA, commonly AUG but rarely UUG and GUG also acts as start codons.
Each tRNA contains a three-nucleotide sequence known as anticodon that is complementary to the codon sequence on mRNA. Once the correct codon-anticodon pairing takes place, protein synthesis begins. The first protein to be synthesized is generally methionine as the start codon AUG codes for methionine.
2. Elongation: It is a process in which amino acids are added one by one to the increasing peptide chain. Enzyme peptidyl transfer asecatalyzes the peptide bond formation between two amino acids. The enzymatic activity resides in the large ribosomal subunit (23S rRNA and28S rRNA).
3. Termination- Termination occurs when the ribosomal machinery comes across the stop codons- UAA, UAG, and UGA. Certain release factors such as RF-1, RF-2, and RF-3 causes the release of the finalized polypeptide chain from the ribosome assembly.
The association and dissociation of large subunit and small ribosomal subunits during the period of protein synthesis and completion are known as the ribosome cycle.
Post-translational Modifications of Polypeptides:
Once the protein is synthesized and folded in the correct configuration, it undergoes certain modifications that alters the protein activity, increases protein diversity, and enhances the interaction between the proteins.
Different post-translational modifications include
a .Chemical modification- This involves the addition of certain chemical groups to specific amino acids.
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