During pregnancy, the demand for nutrition increases. The developing fetus requires a sufficient amount of all nutrients required for growth and development. The fetus gets its nutrition from the mother through the placenta. Thus, pregnant women need to consume a well-balanced, healthy diet. Excessive or insufficient nutrition during pregnancy affects the programming of different functions of the developing fetus’s organs. This may lead to postnatal diseases.
If the mother consumes excessive nutrients, then it may lead to excessive weight gain. It may affect the blood pressure of the offspring in the future. Insufficient nutrition during pregnancy causes low birth weight, and the developing fetus could not receive the appropriate amount of nutrition due to weak placenta. Undernutrition also enhances the risk of heart disorder.
The Fetal programming theory is also called Barker’s hypothesis. This theory helps to determine the health of the fetus due to the changes in pregnancy. A fetus develops inside the mother’s womb, making it difficult to analyze the health condition of the growing fetus and health in adulthood. Thus, pregnant women need to stay healthy and consume a well-balanced, healthy diet. Undernutrition or lack of nutrients in the diet causes alteration in the structural as well as physiological development of the fetus.
Generally, there are three forms of fetal programming:
All these changes affect the health of the child. During the fetal developmental phase, the organs, as well as the functioning both, grow simultaneously. These determine the future health of the baby. During the pregnancy period, a lady undergoes different conditions which may affect fetal programming. Such condition causes harmful diseases in late adulthood. The major factor that affects fetal programming is nutrition. If a pregnant woman suffers from malnutrition, it will ultimately lead to birth defects. The child will eventually suffer from chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension (HTN), CVDs, and many more. Therefore, pregnant women must have a good psychological and physical state during pregnancy.
Causes of Fetal Programming
Numerous factors affect fetal programming. The offspring generally inherits the traits from the parents. The genetic conditions of the parents get a pass on to the developing fetus. This comes under genetic factor that affects fetal programming. However, a pregnant woman also suffers from environmental modifications which may affect the development of the baby.
The environmental factors come under the category of epigenetic. Stress is also one of the major epigenetic factors that hamper fetal programming and lead to future health defects. Barker and Nicholas Hales put forward the Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis in which it is explained that decreased growth of the fetus inside the motherâ€™s womb causes various chronic diseases later in life.
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