Internal Energy in a chemical reaction is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the particles in the reaction. The internal energy can be measured by the flow of heat (q), work done (Ww) or both. The expression for â€˜change in internal energy (\Delta E)(Î”E) is:
\Delta E = q + WÎ”E=q+W
Overview of Heat And Internal Energy
The work done by chemical processes is usually the work done by gases either by compression or expansion. The work done in any chemical process is defined as the product of pressure and change in volume.
W = – P\Delta VW=âˆ’PÎ”V
The pressure (in atm.) is usually constant and hence work done is based on change in volume. If a gas expands, its volume increases and hence the change in volume turns out to be positive. Since pressure is always a positive constant, the work done must be negative. This also means that the reaction is doing work on the surroundings to expand the volume. Similarly, if a gas gets compressed, the volume of system decreases and the change in volume \Delta VÎ”Vmust be negative. As pressure is always positive, work done (-P\Delta V)(âˆ’PÎ”V) will be positive.
From the above two instances, if the work done is positive, then energy is flowing into the system and energy flows out of the system if work done is negative.
Hessâ€™s law is an interpretation of the principle of conservation of energy. The change in energy is a state function as it is dependent on the initial and final values of the system. Hessâ€™s law states that â€œThe overall change of enthalpy in a reaction is always same whether the reaction occurs in single step or proceeds through several steps.â€
It can also be defined as,â€œIf a reaction proceeds out in a number of different steps, âˆ†H for the overall reaction will always be equal to the addition of enthalpy changes for each stepâ€.
Properties of Enthalpy
Â· Enthalpy is a state function
Â· The enthalpy change (âˆ†H) for a reaction is reversible (equal in magnitude but opposite in sign).
Â· The change in enthalpy depends on the state of reactants and products.
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