The glands that secrete their components directly into the bloodstream due to the absence of a duct are called endocrine or ductless glands. They secrete hormones in the body which act on a specific tissue or organ and regulate its activity. The endocrine system comprises various glands like the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, etc. A branch of biology for which the subject of study is the endocrine system is known as endocrinology. Endocrinology involves the study of various aspects of the endocrine system like the evolutionary aspect, environmental aspect, physiological aspect, behavioral aspect, functional aspects. Based on the aspects of endocrinology one is studying it is divided into various specializations. The specializations in endocrinology include- comparative and behavioral endocrinology. Comparative endocrinology includes research on the roles of various hormones and the functions they are regulating in a wide range of diverse vertebrates and invertebrates. It can include the study of differences in maternal behavior, stress response, growth, and development between the vertebrates and invertebrates. This specialization focuses mainly on the evolution of endocrine glands, regulation of hormone action in animals, and the role of various environmental factors in controlling the hormone release and function. It is further divided into evolutionary and environmental endocrinology. Behavioral endocrinology deals with the study of hormone influence an animalâ€™s behavior. It includes the effects the hormone has on the target and the changes that get induced in the body due to the action of that hormone. It helps to study the role and effect of a hormone on the physiology, psychology of an organism.
The endocrine system comprises of various glands which are- Pituitary gland- It is known as the master gland and controls activities or various other glands. It secretes the pituitary hormone. Parathyroid gland- It secretes parathyroid hormones which help in regulating calcium levels in the body. Pancreas- This gland secretes insulin hormone which helps in regulating blood sugar level in the body. Thyroid hormone- The thyroid hormone is released from this gland. The adrenal gland-A chemical messenger that controls the sex drive is produced by this gland. Hypothalamus-It plays a role in regulating body temperature and also stimulates the release of hormones from other glands. Ovaries: Present only in women, they bring the secondary sexual characters in the female during puberty by secretion of hormones estrogens, progesterone in the blood. Testes: They are present only in men and produce the male sex hormone, testosterone, and produce sperm.
Specializations of the Endocrine System
A study that revolves around various aspects and interactions of the endocrine system is termed as endocrinology. The person practicing endocrinology is known as an endocrinologist. Endocrinology involves the study of various aspects of the endocrine system like the evolutionary aspect, environmental aspect, physiological aspect, behavioral aspect, functional aspects. It could be the role of the endocrine system in determining the behavior of an organism, the difference in various organisms concerning various processes that are under endocrine control, the effect of various environmental factors on the regulation of the endocrine system, to trace evolution using the features of various endocrine organs. The study can be on a single organism of species or more than one organism from different species based on the aspects of endocrinology one is studying it is divided into various specializations. The specializations in endocrinology include- comparative and behavioral endocrinology.
It includes research on the roles of various hormones and the functions they are regulating in a wide range of diverse vertebrates and invertebrates. It can include the study of differences in maternal behavior, stress response, growth, and development between the vertebrates and invertebrates. It focuses on the evolution of endocrine glands, regulation of hormone action in animals, and the role of various environmental factors in controlling the hormone release and function. Various model organisms have been used to study human endocrinology like mice, to study processes of growth and reproduction using hormones, due to the difficulty in studying these using humans as hosts. In mammals, the entire testis does not progress synchronously for sperm formation while it happens in fishes and amphibians. A mouse was induced with the hormones from both these groups (humans and amphibians) to mark the differences in their spermatogenesis pattern. When the aim of carrying out a study is the comparison of factors based on their phylogenetic and environmental aspects, it is known as comparative endocrinology. It can be evolutionary comparative endocrinology or environmental comparative endocrinology. Environmental comparative endocrinology deals with the effect of various environmental factors like pesticides, pollution, biotic factors, etc. on the endocrine system of animals. Evolutionary endocrinology can be used to trace the evolution of a specific gland or hormone with time and can help in constructing an evolutionary tree.
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