The process of developing to a mature ovum from the immature egg cell or oocyte is known as oogenesis. The stages are discussed as follows:
Primordial germ cells: These cells are present in the embryo, which will eventually develop into gonads (either testis or ovaries). These are the cells that will either become sperms or oocytes during the developing stage.
Oogonium: When the primordial germ cells enter into the gonads with the help of the surrounding cells, it forms oogonium. The oogonia are the diploid cells consisting of two sets of chromosomes, including 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes. Later, the oocyte will only consist of 23 chromosomes, and will receive the other 23 chromosomes from the sperm to complete the pair during the fertilization process. During the first five months of embryonic development, the oogonium will undergo mitotic cell division to proliferate the number. During the process of the meiotic cell division, the oogonium will be divided into two cells that contain the following properties:
Half of the chromosomal sets, which will consist of haploid cells (23 chromosomes.)
Have unique chromosomal sets, which means every oogonium will contain unique sister cells.
The oogonium will consist of different chromosomal material than another. The unique genetic makeup from others is due to the mitotic division that occurs in every new life. The process is random, and genetic material depends on what the embryo receives from the father and the mother. The cells continue to proliferate till the fetus is five months old. If the fetus is female, it will have 7-million oocytes, and the number will reduce to 2-million oocytes at birth.
Primary Oocyte: To become a mature ovum, each oocyte will undergo two meiotic divisions, which facilitate the oocyte to grow and mature. At the final stage of the prenatal development, the oocyte stops proliferating and matures independently. The primary oocyte remains frozen until and unless reproductive hormones activate the next stage.
Secondary Oocyte: After the primary oocytes get activated by the reproductive hormones, the first stage of the meiotic division ends. This process is known as the oocyte maturation stage. After that, the cell divides into two separate cells, the small polar body will deteriorate, and the secondary oocyte will move to the next maturation stage.
Ootid and Ovum: The oocyte will start the second meiotic division and split into small polar body cells and large mature cells, which is known as ootid. When the oocyte reaches the ootid stage, ovulation occurs, and the ootid gets released from the follicle. The ootid moves towards the fallopian tubes with the help of the cilia. The ootid is fertilized by a sperm cell, the process that occurs in the fallopian tubes. If the fertilization occurs, that is when the ootid meets the sperm, it becomes mature and develops into an ovum, the human egg cell. During fertilization, ovum and sperm cells fuse to forms a new cell called a zygote.
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