Classical-Conditioning: – Stimulus Generalization
A significant element of classical/respondent conditioning is stimulus-generalization, where the conditioned response is generalized to the stimuli that resembled the conditioned stimuli. Example: – A child feels fearful of injection, and when the child sees any other needle, there is automatically felt apprehension. The phenomenon happened with the child because of stimulus generalization. Elimination of generalization-effect can take place through discrimination learning. It means that learning to discern among resembled stimulus and conditioned stimulus. And accordingly, display response to the appropriate stimuli. For example discrimination learning for the child would be differentiating between injection and other needles. Pavlov experiment: Pavlov experimented on a dog. Initially, in the experiment, the dog did not salivate to the sound of the bell [neutral stimuli that do not generate a response]. Although, displayed salivation to the food [unconditioned stimuli that lead to the unconditioned response]. Pavlov paired food with the bell in the process of conditioning. Consequently, the dog salivated to the sound of the bell [conditioned stimuli that elicit the conditioned response]. In the further experiment, Pavlov found that the dog salivated after listening to a similar-sounding bell because of generalization. To help the dog differentiate between the original sound of a bell and a similar-sounding one [yet different], Pavlov did not provide food after the resembled bell rung. The dog learned to salivate to only the original bell sound and produce little or no salivation to resemble the bell sound.
Panic disorder consists of recurring panic attacks that last for a few minutes to hours. Individuals with panic attacks feel that death has approached them. The physical indications accompanied by panic attacks include tachycardia, pulsations, dyspnoea, and sweating. They may feel doubtful and have difficulty focusing on things. The first panic attack is usually incidental. Sometimes, it can discern from various factors such as manual exertion, sexual recreation, or intermediate traumatic events. It is significant for a clinician to assess the client habits or situation that leads to a panic attack. According to research findings, panic attacks may arise because of substance abuse, nicotine, distorted eating or sleeping habits, or some distinct situation. According to research findings, people with panic disorder cannot accurately explain their facing fearful citations. Patients may have anxiety in between their panic attacks, thinking that they might have another attack too. Mental health examination of such patients states that stammering and impaired memory are common in panic attacks. Cognitive behavior therapy [CBT], medication can help to reduce symptoms of panic disorder. Other treatment procedures may include family and group therapy that help the patients and their families to overcome difficulties that arose as a consequence of the psychosis.
Panic Disorder: – Explanation of Classical Conditioning
Panic attacks are witnessed in an anxiety disorder, such as phobias. Phobia is an irrational fear of something. Behaviorists state that responses originating in a fearful situation happen as a consequence of learning them. Organisms can generalize the learned response of fear to other similar-looking stimuli. John B Watson demonstrated this concept through an experiment named “Little Albert.” Experiment little Albert Albert, an eleven months old boy, did not feel fearful of white rats before the experiment. Watson conditioned the fear of white rats in Albert through classical conditioning. The little boy saw white rats on the first day of the experimental study. As the boy tried to reach the rats, Watson created a loud sound through a hammer and iron. The little boy was stunned. After the continuous association of the sound with rats, the boy started displaying fear symptoms and often used to cry. Consequently, the boy got conditioned with the fear response. The experiment finding showed that Albert responded with apprehension and crying while seeing rats without any sound. The little boy displays similar symptoms while seeing a rabbit, Santa Claus mask, and other animals that look similar to white rats [stimulus- generalization]. Watson concluded that learning irrational fears occurs because of conditioning. Like it happened with Albert.
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