Heat is the most widely used and the easiest to harness form of energy that can be used to generate steam for turbines or furnaces. Combustion is the process of reacting oxygen with a fuel to produce heat energy and several by-products. Combustion, in common terms, is called â€˜burningâ€™. The process of combustion has been used since the invention of fire to make life easier. The heat generated by combustion has a range of uses from cooking food to powering supercritical power plants. Combustion is relatively simple as it uses a small amount of energy for ignition, and air that is practically unlimited in supply. However, the cost of combustible fuel is restrictive, and inefficient combustion due to lack of supply of air could lead to its wastage. In the figure, the theoretical combustion involves the reaction between the fuel (CXHY) and an ideal stoichiometric quantity of air (ath) that completely burns the fuel-yielding products (X CO2 + Y/2 H2 O + 3.76 ath N2) without excess oxygen or products of partial combustion. The concept of stoichiometric combustion is explained by studying the concepts of mass balance in combustion, the efficiency of combustion, and excess air.
The theoretical air required for stoichiometric combustion is the minimum amount of air that is required to burn the fuel under ideal conditions completely. However, in real life, the use of theoretical air may cause incomplete combustion, leading to soot deposition, flame instability ,and carbon monoxide production. Therefore, most furnaces use about 10 to 20% excess air to avoid any chance of incomplete combustion.
Increasing the excess air would increase the amount of oxygen available for combustion. However, an excess amount of oxygen left unreacted is released as flue gas. The above figure shows the increase in the amount of oxygen in the flue gases for increasing excess air. The carbon dioxide content reduces in percentage terms, but not in quantity, as the amount of fuel burnt remains constant, and the amount of oxygen in flue gas increases. Excess air is necessary for the safety and reduction of pollution when higher environmental standards are mandated.
The Efficiency of Combustion
Excess air is desired for better combustion and cleaner flue gases. However, air can carry heat out of the system. Therefore, increasing the amount of air would lead to the wastage of heat and fuel.
A trade-off between combustion and efficiency is required. In the above figure, the highest efficiency is attained above the stoichiometric combustion until the loss of heat in the excess air is greater than the heat produced by efficient combustion. Industrial combustion processes are continuously monitored using sensors and software to reduce fuel wastage and achieve the highest efficiency.
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