When the cells are not undergoing any division, the DNA present in the nucleus will be in the form of uncoiled chromatin. But on division, chromosomes are formed as the DNA wraps around the histones. The chromosomes are nothing but a thread-like structure that carries the genetic information that is passed to the newly formed daughter cells. These chromosomes have a section of DNA that carries the genetic information refer to as a gene that controls the production of protein. Each chromosome has two identical halves called sister chromatids. The joining of chromatids together is centromere which gets separated on cell division.
All the organisms do not have the same chromosome number, which varies between the species. For example, in normal human beings there are 23 pairs of chromosomes (n=46) and in fruit flies- two sets of chromosomes (n=8).
There are two types of chromosomes: autosomes-body chromosomes which are 44 in humans and two types of sex chromosomes (XX in male or XY in female).
The chromosome in each cell can be haploid (one set or copy of each chromosome) or diploid (two sets or copies of each chromosome).
The size of the cell is limited which produces more cells on growing. Larger cells have less surface area relative to volume.
Exchanging materials: The rate at which the materials get exchanged depends on the cell membrane and the amount of material that is consumed depends on the volume of the cell.
Length: When the length of the cell is increased, the volume also increases than the surface area. It is harder for the cells to move materials and waste products in and out, which is why it gets divided.
Types of growth observed in:
In plants: The growth is confined to the meristematic tissues present in the plant body. The new cells formed by the division of meristematic cells lose the ability to divide and form new plant body. In plants, the size of the cell increases after cell division due to an increase in the water content. The daughter cells formed during cell division undergo an increase in volume, due to the uptake of water by the cells that are stored in the vacuole part of the plants. This causes more pressure which in turn pushes the cellulose walls of the plants, thereby increasing the length, turgor, and girth of the plant.
In animals: In animals, cell growth is rapid in the embryo and decreases at the juvenile stage, which then stops. The process of cell division continues life-long even after an increase in body size does not occur. In mammals, the increase of height does not happen at some point due to the cessation of cell division and bone formation in long bones. The process of growth and division varies between organs in our body. The variation in size is an important factor that determines the shape of an organism.
In cells: The increase in cell number occurs by a process known as mitosis. During mitosis, two daughter cells are formed from the parent cells carrying the genetic information in them. Both the daughter cells receive a complete set of chromosomes before they are separated. During cell growth, an increase in the cell surface, chromosome number, and cytoplasmic mass occur which is followed by division, where the chromosomes and the cytoplasmic mass get distributed to daughter cells. In animal cells, cytokinesis (a division of the cytoplasm) take place and cellulose wall are formed between new cells in plants.
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