The cognitive psychology of memory and learning

The implicit memory (non-declarative memory) deals with the memory of physical skills and habits that one can able to develop by repeated practice. Such practices include walking, phonation, bike riding, and golf club swinging. Since these skills are consciously been learned by us who become inculcated in the subconscious mind that moves from the long-term storage in the cerebral cortex region of the brain. These regions are quite reachable to conscious recall in the cerebellum and are residing in the form of the subconscious, automatic skills.

The declarative memory (explicit memory) is most referred to when we speak about memory. This memory involves the storage and retrieval of memories back into knowledge, facts, and documentary data. This memory is again sub-classified into 1) Semantic memory that accumulates the knowledge and facts that one gets in their life, and 2) Episodic memory that consciously recalls our events and autobiographical stories in our life.

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The explicit memory is stored in, created, and kept in the brain cerebrum. The short-term memory denotes an idea of the holding ability of new information that is limited in an amount such as street name, door number, and mobile number. Here, the classical method is teaching can able to hold only new things like digits during the short term memory.

The development of short-term memory starts in the part of the brain hippocampus. When the hippocampus is destroyed a person is not able to make new long-term memories. The working memory is the construction of cognitive psychology. Imagine that the working memory that we use to hold and deliberately process the long-term memory and buffer the process of short term memory prior connected to existing schemes.

The long term and short term memories:
The long term memory remains indefinitely, that is as long as the brain parts holding them to remain intact. Certain skills like walking are deposited in the cerebellum as like long-term memory. It is very critical during evolution that includes personal survival and learning ability in life events.

The long term memory requires focused attention. These generally drift into unconsciousness. Due to the associations between contexts and events, one can able to frequently contribute to the worldwide human experience by remembering the memory that reluctantly leads to the recovery, and occasionally they are an unapparent association that connects contexts and events.

The inter-conversion of the short term into long term memory is called memory amalgamation. In this conversion, memories are originally stored in the hippocampus then moved to the cerebral cortex for long-term storage. There are two types of consolidation such as synaptic consolidation and systems consolidation.

The synaptic alliance is very rapid that takes a few minutes to hours, whereas the system consolidations take few weeks or may even months. In system consolidations, the short-term memories become independent in the hippocampus and they are transferred to the cerebral cortex.

Molecular and cellular basis of learning and memory:
Certain types of emotions such as, anxiety drive our ability to save new memories that make us difficult to recall the things that we have learned when need them. For example our academic examination. The term neuroplasticity describes the continuous ability to adapt and that undergoes physical changes at the microscopic level that was being exposed to new experiences, learning some new ideas, recalling pleasant memories, certain emotions and, exposure to certain environmental changes.

The term neuroplasticity is a type of global concept that includes both synaptic plasticity and non-synaptic plasticity methods that our brain physically adapts and undergoes changes as it can learn and create memories. It was believed that the brain was found to be static in adults and is unchangeable. Now it is believed that the brain exists in continuous physical changes with more adaptations.

Initially, it was believed the one may continuously lose his/her neurons but never develop new ones. In the hippocampus, we can continuously develop many new neurons throughout our entire life like hard disk and RAM (Random access memory) in a computer that can able to record by storing information. For many years we have attributed that the region of this storage is the synapses found in our brain.

Such cell to cell communication found in the synapses made the more powerful and strong medium for data storage in which the individual neuron contains about 10,000 synapses that receive the signals from other numerous neurons. The neuron will fire the action potential that is an electrical wave down to the axon is determined by the sum of entire effects of all incoming signals at the somatic and dendritic synapses. At the level of synapses, certain activities are stimulated and certain are inhibited. Humans have about 100 billion neurons that are interconnected and we have about 10,000 synapses in each neuron. Each synapse possesses both stimulated and inhibitory activities.

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